HTTP headers – MDN Web Docs
HTTP headers let the client and the server pass additional information with an HTTP request or response. An HTTP header consists of its case-insensitive name followed by a colon (:), then by its value. Whitespace before the value is ignored.
Custom proprietary headers have historically been used with an X- prefix, but this convention was deprecated in June 2012 because of the inconveniences it caused when nonstandard fields became standard in RFC 6648; others are listed in an IANA registry, whose original content was defined in RFC 4229. IANA also maintains a registry of proposed new HTTP headers.
Headers can be grouped according to their contexts:
Request headers contain more information about the resource to be fetched, or about the client requesting the resource.
Response headers hold additional information about the response, like its location or about the server providing it.
Representation headers contain information about the body of the resource, like its MIME type, or encoding/compression applied.
Payload headers contain representation-independent information about payload data, including content length and the encoding used for transport.
Headers can also be grouped according to how proxies handle them:
Upgrade (see also Protocol upgrade mechanism).
These headers must be transmitted to the final recipient of the message: the server for a request, or the client for a response. Intermediate proxies must retransmit these headers unmodified and caches must store them.
These headers are meaningful only for a single transport-level connection, and must not be retransmitted by proxies or cached. Note that only hop-by-hop headers may be set using the Connection header.
Defines the authentication method that should be used to access a resource.
Contains the credentials to authenticate a user-agent with a server.
Defines the authentication method that should be used to access a resource behind a proxy server.
Contains the credentials to authenticate a user agent with a proxy server.
The time, in seconds, that the object has been in a proxy cache.
Directives for caching mechanisms in both requests and responses.
Clears browsing data (e. g. cookies, storage, cache) associated with the requesting website.
The date/time after which the response is considered stale.
Implementation-specific header that may have various effects anywhere along the request-response chain. Used for backwards compatibility with HTTP/1. 0 caches where the Cache-Control header is not yet present.
General warning information about possible problems.
Client hintsHTTP Client hints are a set of request headers that provide useful information about the client such as device type and network conditions, and allow servers to optimize what is served for those conditions.
Servers proactively requests the client hint headers they are interested in from the client using Accept-CH. The client may then choose to include the requested headers in subsequent requests.
Servers can advertise support for Client Hints using the Accept-CH header field or an equivalent HTML element with -equiv attribute.
Servers can ask the client to remember the set of Client Hints that the server supports for a specified period of time, to enable delivery of Client Hints on subsequent requests to the server’s origin.
The different categories of client hints are listed client hints
Response header used to confirm the image device to pixel ratio in requests where the DPR client hint was used to select an image resource.
Approximate amount of available client RAM memory. This is part of the Device Memory API.
Client device pixel ratio (DPR), which is the number of physical device pixels corresponding to every CSS pixel.
A number that indicates the layout viewport width in CSS pixels. The provided pixel value is a number rounded to the smallest following integer (i. e. ceiling value).
The Width request header field is a number that indicates the desired resource width in physical pixels (i. intrinsic size of an image).
Network client hintsNetwork client hints allow a server to choose what information is sent based on the user choice and network bandwidth and latency.
Approximate bandwidth of the client’s connection to the server, in Mbps. This is part of the Network Information API.
The effective connection type (“network profile”) that best matches the connection’s latency and bandwidth. This is part of the Network Information API.
Application layer round trip time (RTT) in miliseconds, which includes the server processing time. This is part of the Network Information API.
A boolean that indicates the user agent’s preference for reduced data usage.
The last modification date of the resource, used to compare several versions of the same resource. It is less accurate than ETag, but easier to calculate in some environments. Conditional requests using If-Modified-Since and If-Unmodified-Since use this value to change the behavior of the request.
A unique string identifying the version of the resource. Conditional requests using If-Match and If-None-Match use this value to change the behavior of the request.
Makes the request conditional, and applies the method only if the stored resource matches one of the given ETags.
Makes the request conditional, and applies the method only if the stored resource doesn’t match any of the given ETags. This is used to update caches (for safe requests), or to prevent uploading a new resource when one already exists.
Makes the request conditional, and expects the resource to be transmitted only if it has been modified after the given date. This is used to transmit data only when the cache is out of date.
Makes the request conditional, and expects the resource to be transmitted only if it has not been modified after the given date. This ensures the coherence of a new fragment of a specific range with previous ones, or to implement an optimistic concurrency control system when modifying existing documents.
Determines how to match request headers to decide whether a cached response can be used rather than requesting a fresh one from the origin server.
Controls whether the network connection stays open after the current transaction finishes.
Controls how long a persistent connection should stay open.
Content negotiationContent negotiation headers.
Informs the server about the types of data that can be sent back.
The encoding algorithm, usually a compression algorithm, that can be used on the resource sent back.
Informs the server about the human language the server is expected to send back. This is a hint and is not necessarily under the full control of the user: the server should always pay attention not to override an explicit user choice (like selecting a language from a dropdown).
Indicates expectations that need to be fulfilled by the server to properly handle the request.
Indicates if the resource transmitted should be displayed inline (default behavior without the header), or if it should be handled like a download and the browser should present a “Save As” dialog.
Message body information
The size of the resource, in decimal number of bytes.
Indicates the media type of the resource.
Used to specify the compression algorithm.
Describes the human language(s) intended for the audience, so that it allows a user to differentiate according to the users’ own preferred language.
Indicates an alternate location for the returned data.
Contains information from the client-facing side of proxy servers that is altered or lost when a proxy is involved in the path of the request.
Identifies the originating IP addresses of a client connecting to a web server through an HTTP proxy or a load balancer.
Identifies the original host requested that a client used to connect to your proxy or load balancer.
Identifies the protocol (HTTP or HTTPS) that a client used to connect to your proxy or load balancer.
Added by proxies, both forward and reverse proxies, and can appear in the request headers and the response headers.
Indicates the URL to redirect a page to.
Contains an Internet email address for a human user who controls the requesting user agent.
Specifies the domain name of the server (for virtual hosting), and (optionally) the TCP port number on which the server is listening.
The address of the previous web page from which a link to the currently requested page was followed.
Governs which referrer information sent in the Referer header should be included with requests made.
Contains a characteristic string that allows the network protocol peers to identify the application type, operating system, software vendor or software version of the requesting software user agent. See also the Firefox user agent string reference.
Lists the set of HTTP request methods supported by a resource.
Contains information about the software used by the origin server to handle the request.
Indicates if the server supports range requests, and if so in which unit the range can be expressed.
Indicates the part of a document that the server should return.
Creates a conditional range request that is only fulfilled if the given etag or date matches the remote resource. Used to prevent downloading two ranges from incompatible version of the resource.
Indicates where in a full body message a partial message belongs.
Allows a server to declare an embedder policy for a given document.
Prevents other domains from opening/controlling a window.
Prevents other domains from reading the response of the resources to which this header is applied.
Controls resources the user agent is allowed to load for a given page.
Allows web developers to experiment with policies by monitoring, but not enforcing, their effects. These violation reports consist of JSON documents sent via an HTTP POST request to the specified URI.
Allows sites to opt in to reporting and/or enforcement of Certificate Transparency requirements, which prevents the use of misissued certificates for that site from going unnoticed. When a site enables the Expect-CT header, they are requesting that Chrome check that any certificate for that site appears in public CT logs.
Provides a mechanism to allow and deny the use of browser features in its own frame, and in iframes that it embeds.
Provides a mechanism to allow web applications to isolate their origins.
Force communication using HTTPS instead of HTTP.
Sends a signal to the server expressing the client’s preference for an encrypted and authenticated response, and that it can successfully handle the upgrade-insecure-requests directive.
Disables MIME sniffing and forces browser to use the type given in Content-Type.
The X-Download-Options HTTP header indicates that the browser (Internet Explorer) should not display the option to “Open” a file that has been downloaded from an application, to prevent phishing attacks as the file otherwise would gain access to execute in the context of the application. (Note: related MS Edge bug).
Indicates whether a browser should be allowed to render a page in a ,
How to view HTTP headers in Google Chrome? – Mkyong.com
Java 17 (LTS)Java 16Java 15Java 14Java 13Java 12Java 11 (LTS)Java 8 (LTS)Java IO / NIOJava JDBCJava JSONJava CSVJava XMLSpring BootJUnit 5MavenMisc By mkyong | Last updated: January 21, 2016Viewed: 458, 868 (+2, 019 pv/w)To view the request or response HTTP headers in Google Chrome, take the following steps:In Chrome, visit a URL, right click, select Inspect to open the developer Network the page, select any HTTP request on the left panel, and the HTTP headers will be displayed on the right panel. Comments Inline FeedbacksView all commentsNot seeing what you expect? Make sure the filters are set to “All” to the right of the to the “Hide Data URLs” check box. Reply to Mark Deazley Thanks Mark. Reply to Mark Deazley You sir, you are my hero! This post is so useful, thanks! where can you see the version though? Thanx for sharing this infoAnd where the heck is the version? how to see the duration of persistant connection?? Daniel Villela 10 months agoThanksss, simple and practical Nam Nguyen H. 10 months agoDid API of every platform(Instagram, Discord, …) come from here? Thanks. It worked for this is very useful information, thanks for sharing this information with us. google extensions are very useful I also read an article on but the information which is mentioned in this article is not proper don’t go, do you know what does mean the double dots before parameter? For example:Request Headers:authority::method: GET:path: /api/data/v9. 0/$metadata:scheme: I do not know what does mean the “:”
Do I need a content-type header for HTTP GET requests? – Stack Overflow
As far as I understood there are two places where to set the content type:
The client sets a content type for the body he is sending to the server (e. g. for post)
The server sets a content type for the response.
Does this mean I don’t have to or should not set a content type for all my get requests (client side). And if I can or should what content type would that be?
Also I read in a few posts that the content type of the client specifies what type of content the client would like to receive. So maybe my point 1 is not right?
lospejos1, 9083 gold badges17 silver badges32 bronze badges
asked Apr 14 ’11 at 10:05
Martin FluckaMartin Flucka2, 7655 gold badges24 silver badges43 bronze badges
According to the RFC 7231 section 3. 1. 5. 5:
A sender that generates a message containing a payload body SHOULD generate a Content-Type header field in that message unless the intended media type of the enclosed representation is unknown to the sender. If a Content-Type header field is not present, the recipient MAY either assume a media type of “application/octet-stream” ([RFC2046], Section 4. 1) or examine the data to determine its type.
It means that the Content-Type HTTP header should be set only for PUT and POST requests.
answered May 22 ’13 at 14:04
Get requests should not have content-type because they do not have request entity (that is, a body)
answered Apr 14 ’11 at 10:06
Dmitry NegodaDmitry Negoda2, 5952 gold badges16 silver badges15 bronze badges
The accepted answer is wrong. The quote is correct, the assertion that PUT and POST must have it is incorrect. There is no requirement that PUT or POST actually have additional content. Nor is there a prohibition against GET actually having content.
The RFCs say exactly what they mean.. IFF your side (client OR origin server) will be sending additional content, beyond the HTTP headers, it SHOULD specify a Content-Type header. But note it is allowable to omit the Content-Type and still include content (say, by using a Content-Length header).
answered Oct 19 ’14 at 1:59
user4157069user41570693293 silver badges2 bronze badges
Short answer: Most likely, no you do not need a content-type header for HTTP GET requests. But the specs does not seem to rule out a content-type header for HTTP GET, either.
“Content-Type” is part of the representation (i. e. payload) metadata. Quoted from
RFC 7231 section 3. 1:
3. Representation Metadata
Representation header fields provide metadata about the
representation. When a message includes a payload body, the
representation header fields describe how to interpret the
representation data enclosed in the payload body….
The following header fields convey representation metadata:
| Header Field Name | Defined in… |
| Content-Type | Section 3. 5 |
|… |… |
Quoted from RFC 7231 section 3. 5(by the way, the current chosen answer had a typo in the section number):
The “Content-Type” header field indicates the media type of the
In that sense, a Content-Type header is not really about an HTTP GET request (or a POST or PUT request, for that matter). It is about the payload inside such a whatever request. So, if there will be no payload, there needs no Content-Type. In practice, some implementation went ahead and made that understandable assumption. Quoted from Adam’s comment:
“While… the spec doesn’t say you can’t have Content-Type on a GET, seems to enforce it in it’s HttpClient. See this SO q&a. ”
However, strictly speaking, the specs itself does not rule out the possibility of HTTP GET contains a payload. Quoted from RFC 7231 section 4. 3. 1:
4. 1 GET…
A payload within a GET request message has no defined semantics;
sending a payload body on a GET request might cause some existing
implementations to reject the request.
So, if your HTTP GET happens to include a payload for whatever reason, a Content-Type header is probably reasonable, too.
answered Jul 9 ’20 at 5:29
RayLuoRayLuo13. 3k4 gold badges75 silver badges67 bronze badges
The problem with not passing over the content-type on a GET message is that sure the content-type is irrelevant because the server side determines the content anyway.
The problem that I have encountered is that there are now a lot of places that set up their webservices to be smart enough to pick up the content-type that you pass and return the response in the ‘type’ that you request.
Eg. we are currently messaging with a place that defaults to JSON, however, they have set their webservice up so that if you pass a content-type of xml they will then return xml rather than their JSON default. Which I think going forward is a great idea
answered Sep 10 ’18 at 23:28
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Frequently Asked Questions about get http headers
How do I get HTTP headers?
How to view HTTP headers in Google Chrome?In Chrome, visit a URL, right click , select Inspect to open the developer tools.Select Network tab.Reload the page, select any HTTP request on the left panel, and the HTTP headers will be displayed on the right panel.Jan 21, 2016
Can HTTP GET have headers?
GET requests can have “Accept” headers, which say which types of content the client understands. The server can then use that to decide which content type to send back. They’re optional though.Apr 14, 2011
What is the HTTP header?
HTTP headers let the client and the server pass additional information with an HTTP request or response. An HTTP header consists of its case-insensitive name followed by a colon ( : ), then by its value. … Response headers hold additional information about the response, like its location or about the server providing it.Oct 3, 2021