Broadcast storm – Wikipedia
A broadcast storm or broadcast radiation is the accumulation of broadcast and multicast traffic on a computer network. Extreme amounts of broadcast traffic constitute a “broadcast storm”. It can consume sufficient network resources so as to render the network unable to transport normal traffic.  A packet that induces such a storm is occasionally nicknamed a Chernobyl packet. 
Most commonly the cause is a switching loop in the Ethernet network topology (i. e. two or more paths exist between switches). As broadcasts and multicasts are forwarded by switches out of every port, the switch or switches will repeatedly rebroadcast broadcast messages and flood the network. Since the layer-2 header does not support a time to live (TTL) value, if a frame is sent into a looped topology, it can loop forever.
In some cases, a broadcast storm can be instigated for the purpose of a denial of service (DOS) using one of the packet amplification attacks, such as the smurf attack or fraggle attack, where an attacker sends a large amount of ICMP Echo Requests (ping) traffic to a broadcast address, with each ICMP Echo packet containing the spoof source address of the victim host. When the spoofed packet arrives at the destination network, all hosts on the network reply to the spoofed address. The initial Echo Request is multiplied by the number of hosts on the network. This generates a storm of replies to the victim host tying up network bandwidth, using up CPU resources or possibly crashing the victim. 
In wireless networks a disassociation packet spoofed with the source to that of the wireless access point and sent to the broadcast address can generate a disassociation broadcast DOS attack. 
Switching loops are largely addressed through link aggregation, shortest path bridging or spanning tree protocol. In Metro Ethernet rings it is prevented using the Ethernet Ring Protection Switching (ERPS) or Ethernet Automatic Protection System (EAPS) protocols.
Filtering broadcasts by Layer 3 equipment, typically routers (and even switches that employ advanced filtering called brouters).
Physically segmenting the broadcast domains using routers at Layer 3 (or logically with VLANs at Layer 2) in the same fashion switches decrease the size of collision domains at Layer 2.
Routers and firewalls can be configured to detect and prevent maliciously inducted broadcast storms (e. g. due to a magnification attack).
Broadcast storm control is a feature of many managed switches in which the switch intentionally ceases to forward all broadcast traffic if the bandwidth consumed by incoming broadcast frames exceeds a designated threshold. Although this does not resolve the root broadcast storm problem, it limits broadcast storm intensity and thus allows a network manager to communicate with network equipment to diagnose and resolve the root problem.
MANET broadcast storms
In a mobile ad hoc network (MANET), route request (RREQ) packets are usually broadcast to discover new routes.
These RREQ packets may cause broadcast storms and compete over the channel with data packets.
One approach to alleviate the broadcast storm problem is to inhibit some hosts from rebroadcasting to reduce the redundancy, and thus contention and collision. 
^ “Internetwork Design Guide — Broadcasts in Switched LAN Internetworks”. DocWiki. Cisco. 1999. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018.
^ Chernobyl packet. Free On-line Dictionary of Computing. 17 February 2004. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
^ Chau, Hang (17 September 2004). “Defense Against the DoS/DDoS Attacks on Cisco Routers”. SecurityDocs. Archived from the original on 11 December 2006.
^ “Disassociation Broadcast Attack Using ESSID Jack”. ManageEngine. Archived from the original on 11 December 2006.
^ Ni, Sze-Yao; Tseng, Yu-Chee; Chen, Yuh-Shyan; Sheu, Jang-Ping (15–19 August 1999). The Broadcast Storm Problem in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network (PDF). MobiCom ’99: The Fifth International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking. Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 151–162. ISBN 978-1-58113-142-0. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2019 – via the University of California, Berkeley.
ARCHIVED: What is a broadcast or data storm? – IU KB
This content has been archived, and is no longer maintained by Indiana University. Information here may no longer be accurate, and links may no longer be available or reliable.
A broadcast or data storm is excessive transmission of broadcast
traffic in a network. This happens when a broadcast across a network
results in even more responses, and each response results in still
more responses, in a snowball effect. If network traffic reaches near
100% of the available bandwidth, all network traffic
can be blocked.
Broadcast storms are often caused by a defective network adapter or
defective cabling, where the card or cable floods the network with
packets. This can be fixed quickly by disconnecting the computer
system from the network and then replacing the Ethernet
card, or by checking the network cable for any breaks, kinks, or
loosened connectors, and then making repairs as needed. A broadcast
storm can prevent access to server resources, or cause an entire
network to go down.
Broadcast and data storms can also be caused by an intentional attack
with the purpose of bringing down network systems. When this is the
case, they are called distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. To
prevent your computer from being a victim of or participant in a DDoS
attack, make sure you have installed the latest security patches and
have all your software up to date. For information about protecting your computer at Indiana University, visit:
This is document aibq in the Knowledge Base.
Last modified on 2018-01-18 12:50:27.
What is a Broadcast Storm? – Definition from Techopedia
What Does Broadcast Storm Mean?
A broadcast storm occurs when a network system is overwhelmed by continuous multicast or broadcast traffic. When different nodes are sending/broadcasting data over a network link, and the other network devices are rebroadcasting the data back to the network link in response, this eventually causes the whole network to melt down and lead to the failure of network communication.
There are many reasons a broadcast storm occurs, including poor technology, low port rate switches and improper network configurations.
A broadcast storm is also known as a network storm.
Techopedia Explains Broadcast Storm
Although computer networks and network devices are very intelligent and efficient, networks and network devices sometimes fail to provide 100% efficiency. The broadcast storm is one of the major deficiencies in computer network systems.
For example, suppose there is a small LAN network consisting of three switches (Switch A, Switch B and Switch C), and three network segments (Segment A, Segment B and Segment C). Two nodes are attached within this network. Node A is attached to Segment B, while Node B is directly attached to Switch A. Now, if Node B wants to transmit a data packet to Node A, then traffic is broadcast from Switch A over to Segment C; if this fails, then Switch A also broadcasts traffic over Segment A. Because Node A neither attaches to Segment C, nor Segment A, these switches would further create a flood to Segment B. If neither device/switch has learned the Node A address, then traffic is sent back to Switch A. Hence, all devices/switches keep sending and resending the traffic, eventually resulting in a flood loop or broadcast loop. The final result is that the network melts down, causing failure in all network links, which is referred to as a broadcast storm.
The following elements play an active role in the creation of a broadcast storm:
Poor network management
Poor monitoring of the network
The use of cheap devices, including hubs, switches, routers, cables, connectors, etc.
Improperly maintained network configuration and inexperienced network engineers
The lack of a network diagram design, which is needed for proper management and to provide guidelines for all network traffic routes. This can be done on paper and with the help of application software that creates an automated network diagram.
Frequently Asked Questions about ip storm
What is an IP storm?
A broadcast or data storm is excessive transmission of broadcast traffic in a network. This happens when a broadcast across a network results in even more responses, and each response results in still more responses, in a snowball effect.Jan 18, 2018
What would cause a broadcast storm?
A broadcast storm occurs when a network system is overwhelmed by continuous multicast or broadcast traffic. … There are many reasons a broadcast storm occurs, including poor technology, low port rate switches and improper network configurations. A broadcast storm is also known as a network storm.Dec 27, 2016