How To Use Proxy Server To Access Internet at Shell Prompt …
I‘m behind a squid proxy server. How do I access internet via proxy server when I use wget, lynx and other utilities from a shell prompt on a Linux or Unix-like systems?
Linux and UNIX-like systems has environment variable called _proxy. It allows you to connect text based session and/or applications via the proxy server. All you need is proxy server IP address (URL) and port values. This variable is almost used by all utilities such as elinks, lynx, wget, curl and others commands.
Difficulty level Easy Root privileges No Requirements Linux/Unix shell promot Est. reading time 2 mintues
Set _proxy shell variable on Linux/OS X/Unix bash shell
Type the following command to set proxy server:
$ export _proxy=server-ip:port/
$ export _proxy=$ export _proxy=If the proxy server requires a username and password then add these to the URL. For example, to include the username foo and the password bar:
$ export _proxy=foo:bar@server-ip:port/
$ export _proxy=foo:bar@127. 0. 1:3128/
$ export _proxy=
How do I setup proxy variable for all users?
To setup the proxy environment variable as a global variable, open /etc/profile file:
# vi /etc/profile
Add the following information:
Save and close the file.
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A note about enabling proxy access to a specific user
To enable proxy access for a specific user, add the lines user shell profile. For the default bash shell, the profile is the file. bash_profile. For example, enable proxy access for a specifc user called vivek, type:
$ vi $HOME/. bash_profile
# vi /home/vivek/. bash_profile
Append the following line:
How do I use password protected proxy server using various command line options?
You can simply use wget command as follows:
$ wget –proxy-user=USERNAME –proxy-password=PASSWORD Lynx command has the following syntax:
$ lynx -pauth=USER:PASSWORD Curl command has following syntax:
$ curl –proxy-user user:password
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How to set up proxy using http_proxy & https_proxy …
What is Proxy Server? Check current proxy configuration status (_proxy/_proxy)Set up proxy server using _proxy environment variableSet up proxy without username and passwordSet up proxy with username and passwordSet up proxy with domain, username and passwordSpecial character (@) handlingSet up proxy permanently using /etc/environmentSet up proxy permanently using /etc/profile. d
In this article I will share the steps to set up proxy server using _proxy and _proxy environment variable.
What is Proxy Server?
A proxy server is a dedicated computer or a software system running on a computer that acts as an intermediary between an endpoint device, such as a computer, and another server from which a user or client is requesting a service. The proxy server may exist in the same machine as a firewall server or it may be on a separate server, which forwards requests through the firewall.
Check current proxy configuration status (_proxy/_proxy)
This variable will show if there is a proxy server configured on the system:
# echo $_proxy
If these variables are empty it would mean that there are no proxy servers configured on the system level.
Set up proxy server using _proxy environment variable
The _proxy and _proxy environment variable is used to specify proxy settings to client programs such as curl and wget.
Set up proxy without username and password
Execute the below command with valid SERVER_IP and PORT on the terminal. This will enable proxy configuration for the current session but these values will not be persistent across reboot.
# export _proxy=SERVER:PORT/
Set up proxy with username and password
You can modify the earlier command to add the username and password value assuming a valid authentication is required to enable the proxy server configuration. But again this command will also enable proxy server for the current session only and will not be persistent across reboots.
# export _proxy=USERNAME:PASSWORD@SERVER:PORT/
Set up proxy with domain, username and password
Assuming you are also required to add domain detail while setting up proxy configuration on your system then use the below command
# export _proxy=DOMAIN\\USERNAME:PASSWORD@SERVER:PORT/
Special character (@) handling
With more complex and robust handling of special characters in username or password follow How to setup or proxy with special characters in username and password
When the username or password uses the @ symbol, add a backslash (\) before the @ – for example:
Set up proxy permanently using /etc/environment
Now as I have highlighted above the above commands will work only for the current active session but will not be available across reboots. So to make these changes persistent define the environment variables in /etc/environment file:
# echo “_proxy= >> /etc/environment
HINT:Here /etc/environment file is NOT a shell script and applies to all processes without shell.
Set up proxy permanently using /etc/profile. d
For bash and sh users, add the export line given above into a new file called /etc/profile. d/ file:
# echo “export _proxy= > /etc/profile. d/
For csh and tcsh users, use the following command to set the _proxy variable in a new file called /etc/profile. d/ file:
# echo “setenv _proxy > /etc/profile. d/
The extension of these files determines which shell will read them. The commands are not interchangeable.
HINT:Replace _proxy with _proxy in the export argument to enable proxy over SSL/TLS. This information will be provided by the Network Team who have provided the proxy server related details.
Lastly I hope the steps from the article to setup proxy using _proxy and _proxy environment variable in Linux was helpful. So, let me know your suggestions and feedback using the comment section.
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How to configure proxy settings on Ubuntu 18.04 – Serverlab
Proxies are commonly found on business networks, but they are increasingly becoming popular for personal use. The following tutorial will show you multiple ways of setting your proxy in Ubuntu 18. 04, allowing you to browse the Internet with additional privacy.
This tutorial will cover the following three areas. Use the one the fits your needs.
Desktop: learn how to set your proxy settings from within the desktop.
Terminal: set environment variables for your proxy server when using a terminal or console.
All users: setting the proxy settings for all users on the system.
Ubuntu Desktop Network Settings
Ubuntu 18. 04 Network Proxy Settings
To configure your proxy settings in Ubuntu Desktop you need to access Network Settings. Within there you can set a number of parameters, including proxy settings for HTTP traffic, HTTPS traffic, and FTP traffic.
Equally as important as setting your Internet proxy settings is setting Ignore Hosts, to prevent local traffic from going through your proxy server.
To set your proxy in Ubuntu Desktop, do the following:
Open the Application launcher by clicking the “Show Applications” icon, located at the bottom of the left-hand quick application access bar.
Type in ‘Settings’
Click the ‘Settings’ icon.
From the left-hand navigation, click the Network tab.
Network Settings Configuration Screen
Click the cog icon near the Network Proxy label.
Network settings proxy icon
A dialog box will appear where you can set your proxy settings.
In the appropriate text fields, enter your proxy server’s hostname or IP address. Ensure you change the port number to match your proxy server’s, too.
Ubuntu Proxy Settings Dialog Box
Close the dialog box. Your settings will be automatically saved.
Ubuntu Terminal Proxy Settings
Like every Linux distribution, proxy settings can be set using environment variables. There are a number of variables available to use, ranging from HTTP traffic to FTP traffic.
Proxy settings can be either persistent by setting them in your profile, or non-persistent by setting them from the shell session.
Proxy Environment Variables
Proxy server for HTTP Traffic.
Proxy server for HTTPS traffic
Proxy server for FTP traffic
Patterns for IP addresses or domain names that shouldn’t use the proxy
The value for every proxy setting, except for no_proxy, uses the same template. They all require a hostname, but you may optionally specify a proxy server port and your user credentials if required to do so. For example:
Single User Temporary Proxy Settings
You may not always want to force Internet traffic through a proxy. Sometimes you need to override existing settings, and you can do this safely by setting the proxy environment variables from the command line.
The following will set a proxy for HTTP and HTTPS, while preventing local traffic from going through the proxy. Our example proxy server endpoint is for HTTP traffic and for HTTPS.
Open a Terminal window where you need proxy access.
Set and export the HTTP_PROXY variable.
export HTTP_PROXY=user:[email protected]:8080
Set and export the HTTPS_PROXY variable.
export HTTPS_PROXY=user:[email protected]:8081
Set and export the NO_PROXY variable to prevent local traffic from being sent to the proxy.
export NO_PROXY=localhost, 127. 0. 1, *
Single User Persistent Proxy Settings
Open your bash profile file into a text editor.
vi ~/. bash_profile
Add the following lines, modifying them to match your environment.
export _proxy=username:[email protected]:8080
export _proxy=username:[email protected]:8081
exprot no_proxy=localhost, 127. 1, *
Save your settings.
The proxy settings will be applied the next time you start a session, by logging into the server or opening a new Terminal window from a Desktop.
To force apply your new proxy settings in the current Terminal session, execute the source command against your bash profile.
source ~/. bash_profile
You will need administrative rights to perform this task. All versions of Ubuntu and Debian have a file called /etc/environment. Within this file, we can set global variables and other such things.
Similar to how you set proxy settings for your own local proxy, we’ll be adding the environment variables to this file. The variables will be set when a new user session is created, which is to say when you log in next.
Using an administrator account, open /etc/environment into a text editor.
sudo vi /etc/environment
Add the following lines, modifying them to fit your environment. Username and password may be omitted, if not required.
For example, if you do not need to enter a username or password, and your proxy server is at port 8080, and you do not want local traffic going through the proxy, you would enter the following:
no_proxy=”localhost, 127. 1, ::1
Save your changes and exit the text editor.
Frequently Asked Questions about linux set http proxy
How do I change HTTP proxy in Linux?
Single User Temporary Proxy SettingsOpen a Terminal window where you need proxy access.Set and export the HTTP_PROXY variable. export HTTP_PROXY=user:[email protected]:8080.Set and export the HTTPS_PROXY variable. … Set and export the NO_PROXY variable to prevent local traffic from being sent to the proxy.Apr 26, 2018
How do I set up an HTTP proxy?
Here’s how to set your proxy up from within IE.Open the IE toolbar and select Internet Options.Open the Connections tab.Select LAN Settings.Check the “Use a proxy server for your LAN” box.When prompted, enter the proxy server name and port number.Click OK to save your settings.Mar 11, 2020
How do I setup a proxy server in Linux?
Install Proxy Server: Squid ProxyStep1: Update the server sudo yum update -y.Step 2: Configure EPEL repo. … Step 3: Install squid sudo yum -y install squid.Step 4: Start and enable squid server. … Step 5: Check the status of squid server. … Step 1: Install httpd-tools sudo yum -y install httpd-tools.More items…•Aug 11, 2018