Python Requests Response

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Python requests.Response Object – W3Schools

❮ Requests Module
Example
Make a request to a web page, and return the status code:
import requestsx = (”)print(atus_code)
Run Example »
Definition and Usage
The sponse() Object contains the server’s response to the HTTP request.
Properties and Methods
Property/Method
Description
apparent_encoding
Try it
Returns the apparent encoding
close()
Closes the connection to the server
content
Returns the content of the response, in bytes
cookies
Returns a CookieJar object with the cookies sent back from the server
elapsed
Returns a timedelta object with the time elapsed from sending the request to the arrival of the response
encoding
Returns the encoding used to decode
headers
Returns a dictionary of response headers
history
Returns a list of response objects holding the history of request (url)
is_permanent_redirect
Returns True if the response is the permanent redirected url, otherwise False
is_redirect
Returns True if the response was redirected, otherwise False
iter_content()
Iterates over the response
iter_lines()
Iterates over the lines of the response
json()
Returns a JSON object of the result (if the result was written in JSON format, if not it raises an error)
links
Returns the header links
next
Returns a PreparedRequest object for the next request in a redirection
ok
Returns True if status_code is less than 400, otherwise False
raise_for_status()
If an error occur, this method returns a HTTPError object
reason
Returns a text corresponding to the status code
request
Returns the request object that requested this response
status_code
Returns a number that indicates the status (200 is OK, 404 is Not Found)
text
Returns the content of the response, in unicode
url
Returns the URL of the response
❮ Requests Module
Developer Interface — Requests 2.26.0 documentation

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Developer Interface — Requests 2.26.0 documentation

This part of the documentation covers all the interfaces of Requests. For
parts where Requests depends on external libraries, we document the most
important right here and provide links to the canonical documentation.
Main Interface¶
All of Requests’ functionality can be accessed by these 7 methods.
They all return an instance of the Response object.
quest(method, url, **kwargs)[source]¶
Constructs and sends a Request.
Parameters:
method – method for the new Request object: GET, OPTIONS, HEAD, POST, PUT, PATCH, or DELETE.
url – URL for the new Request object.
params – (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples or bytes to send
in the query string for the Request.
data – (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples, bytes, or file-like
object to send in the body of the Request.
json – (optional) A JSON serializable Python object to send in the body of the Request.
headers – (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the Request.
cookies – (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the Request.
files – (optional) Dictionary of ‘name’: file-like-objects (or {‘name’: file-tuple}) for multipart encoding upload.
file-tuple can be a 2-tuple (‘filename’, fileobj), 3-tuple (‘filename’, fileobj, ‘content_type’)
or a 4-tuple (‘filename’, fileobj, ‘content_type’, custom_headers), where ‘content-type’ is a string
defining the content type of the given file and custom_headers a dict-like object containing additional headers
to add for the file.
auth – (optional) Auth tuple to enable Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
timeout (float or tuple) – (optional) How many seconds to wait for the server to send data
before giving up, as a float, or a (connect timeout, read
timeout) tuple.
allow_redirects (bool) – (optional) Boolean. Enable/disable GET/OPTIONS/POST/PUT/PATCH/DELETE/HEAD redirection. Defaults to True.
proxies – (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy.
verify – (optional) Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether we verify
the server’s TLS certificate, or a string, in which case it must be a path
to a CA bundle to use. Defaults to True.
stream – (optional) if False, the response content will be immediately downloaded.
cert – (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (). If Tuple, (‘cert’, ‘key’) pair.
Returns:Response object
Return sponse
Usage:
>>> import requests
>>> req = quest(‘GET’, ”)
>>> req

(url, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a HEAD request.
**kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes. If
allow_redirects is not provided, it will be set to False (as
opposed to the default request behavior).
(url, params=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a GET request.
**kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
(url, data=None, json=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a POST request.
json – (optional) json data to send in the body of the Request.
(url, data=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a PUT request.
Sends a PATCH request.
Sends a DELETE request.
Exceptions¶
exception questException(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
There was an ambiguous exception that occurred while handling your
request.
exception nnectionError(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
A Connection error occurred.
exception TPError(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
An HTTP error occurred.
exception requests. URLRequired(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
A valid URL is required to make a request.
exception oManyRedirects(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
Too many redirects.
exception nnectTimeout(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
The request timed out while trying to connect to the remote server.
Requests that produced this error are safe to retry.
exception adTimeout(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
The server did not send any data in the allotted amount of time.
exception requests. Timeout(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
The request timed out.
Catching this error will catch both
ConnectTimeout and
ReadTimeout errors.
Request Sessions¶
class ssion[source]¶
A Requests session.
Provides cookie persistence, connection-pooling, and configuration.
Basic Usage:
>>> s = ssion()
>>> (”)
Or as a context manager:
>>> with ssion() as s:… (”)
auth = None¶
Default Authentication tuple or object to attach to
Request.
cert = None¶
SSL client certificate default, if String, path to ssl client
cert file (). If Tuple, (‘cert’, ‘key’) pair.
close()[source]¶
Closes all adapters and as such the session
cookies = None¶
A CookieJar containing all currently outstanding cookies set on this
session. By default it is a
RequestsCookieJar, but
may be any other okieJar compatible object.
delete(url, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a DELETE request. Returns Response object.
get(url, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a GET request. Returns Response object.
get_adapter(url)[source]¶
Returns the appropriate connection adapter for the given URL.
Return seAdapter
get_redirect_target(resp)¶
Receives a Response. Returns a redirect URI or None
head(url, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a HEAD request. Returns Response object.
A case-insensitive dictionary of headers to be sent on each
Request sent from this
Session.
hooks = None¶
Event-handling hooks.
max_redirects = None¶
Maximum number of redirects allowed. If the request exceeds this
limit, a TooManyRedirects exception is raised.
This defaults to, which is
30.
merge_environment_settings(url, proxies, stream, verify, cert)[source]¶
Check the environment and merge it with some settings.
Return type:dict
mount(prefix, adapter)[source]¶
Registers a connection adapter to a prefix.
Adapters are sorted in descending order by prefix length.
options(url, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a OPTIONS request. Returns Response object.
params = None¶
Dictionary of querystring data to attach to each
Request. The dictionary values may be lists for
representing multivalued query parameters.
patch(url, data=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a PATCH request. Returns Response object.
post(url, data=None, json=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a POST request. Returns Response object.
json – (optional) json to send in the body of the Request.
prepare_request(request)[source]¶
Constructs a PreparedRequest for
transmission and returns it. The PreparedRequest has settings
merged from the Request instance and those of the
Parameters:request – Request instance to prepare with this
session’s settings.
Return eparedRequest
proxies = None¶
Dictionary mapping protocol or protocol and host to the URL of the proxy
(e. g. {‘’: ‘’, ‘: ‘’}) to
be used on each Request.
put(url, data=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a PUT request. Returns Response object.
rebuild_auth(prepared_request, response)¶
When being redirected we may want to strip authentication from the
request to avoid leaking credentials. This method intelligently removes
and reapplies authentication where possible to avoid credential loss.
rebuild_method(prepared_request, response)¶
When being redirected we may want to change the method of the request
based on certain specs or browser behavior.
rebuild_proxies(prepared_request, proxies)¶
This method re-evaluates the proxy configuration by considering the
environment variables. If we are redirected to a URL covered by
NO_PROXY, we strip the proxy configuration. Otherwise, we set missing
proxy keys for this URL (in case they were stripped by a previous
redirect).
This method also replaces the Proxy-Authorization header where
necessary.
request(method, url, params=None, data=None, headers=None, cookies=None, files=None, auth=None, timeout=None, allow_redirects=True, proxies=None, hooks=None, stream=None, verify=None, cert=None, json=None)[source]¶
Constructs a Request, prepares it and sends it.
Returns Response object.
method – method for the new Request object.
params – (optional) Dictionary or bytes to be sent in the query
string for the Request.
json – (optional) json to send in the body of the
headers – (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the
cookies – (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the
files – (optional) Dictionary of ‘filename’: file-like-objects
for multipart encoding upload.
auth – (optional) Auth tuple or callable to enable
Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
timeout (float or tuple) – (optional) How long to wait for the server to send
data before giving up, as a float, or a (connect timeout,
read timeout) tuple.
allow_redirects (bool) – (optional) Set to True by default.
proxies – (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol or protocol and
hostname to the URL of the proxy.
stream – (optional) whether to immediately download the response
content. Defaults to False.
to a CA bundle to use. Defaults to True. When set to
False, requests will accept any TLS certificate presented by
the server, and will ignore hostname mismatches and/or expired
certificates, which will make your application vulnerable to
man-in-the-middle (MitM) attacks. Setting verify to False
may be useful during local development or testing.
cert – (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file ().
If Tuple, (‘cert’, ‘key’) pair.
resolve_redirects(resp, req, stream=False, timeout=None, verify=True, cert=None, proxies=None, yield_requests=False, **adapter_kwargs)¶
Receives a Response. Returns a generator of Responses or Requests.
send(request, **kwargs)[source]¶
Send a given PreparedRequest.
should_strip_auth(old_url, new_url)¶
Decide whether Authorization header should be removed when redirecting
stream = None¶
Stream response content default.
trust_env = None¶
Trust environment settings for proxy configuration, default
authentication and similar.
verify = None¶
SSL Verification default.
Defaults to True, requiring requests to verify the TLS certificate at the
remote end.
If verify is set to False, requests will accept any TLS certificate
presented by the server, and will ignore hostname mismatches and/or
expired certificates, which will make your application vulnerable to
man-in-the-middle (MitM) attacks.
Only set this to False for testing.
Lower-Level Classes¶
class quest(method=None, url=None, headers=None, files=None, data=None, params=None, auth=None, cookies=None, hooks=None, json=None)[source]¶
A user-created Request object.
Used to prepare a PreparedRequest, which is sent to the server.
method – HTTP method to use.
url – URL to send.
headers – dictionary of headers to send.
files – dictionary of {filename: fileobject} files to multipart upload.
data – the body to attach to the request. If a dictionary or
list of tuples [(key, value)] is provided, form-encoding will
take place.
json – json for the body to attach to the request (if files or data is not specified).
params – URL parameters to append to the URL. If a dictionary or
auth – Auth handler or (user, pass) tuple.
cookies – dictionary or CookieJar of cookies to attach to this request.
hooks – dictionary of callback hooks, for internal usage.
>>> epare()

deregister_hook(event, hook)¶
Deregister a previously registered hook.
Returns True if the hook existed, False if not.
prepare()[source]¶
Constructs a PreparedRequest for transmission and returns it.
register_hook(event, hook)¶
Properly register a hook.
class sponse[source]¶
The Response object, which contains a
server’s response to an HTTP request.
apparent_encoding¶
The apparent encoding, provided by the charset_normalizer or chardet libraries.
Releases the connection back to the pool. Once this method has been
called the underlying raw object must not be accessed again.
Note: Should not normally need to be called explicitly.
content¶
Content of the response, in bytes.
A CookieJar of Cookies the server sent back.
elapsed = None¶
The amount of time elapsed between sending the request
and the arrival of the response (as a timedelta).
This property specifically measures the time taken between sending
the first byte of the request and finishing parsing the headers. It
is therefore unaffected by consuming the response content or the
value of the stream keyword argument.
encoding = None¶
Encoding to decode with when accessing
Case-insensitive Dictionary of Response Headers.
For example, headers[‘content-encoding’] will return the
value of a ‘Content-Encoding’ response header.
history = None¶
A list of Response objects from
the history of the Request. Any redirect responses will end
up here. The list is sorted from the oldest to the most recent request.
is_permanent_redirect¶
True if this Response one of the permanent versions of redirect.
is_redirect¶
True if this Response is a well-formed HTTP redirect that could have
been processed automatically (by solve_redirects).
iter_content(chunk_size=1, decode_unicode=False)[source]¶
Iterates over the response data. When stream=True is set on the
request, this avoids reading the content at once into memory for
large responses. The chunk size is the number of bytes it should
read into memory. This is not necessarily the length of each item
returned as decoding can take place.
chunk_size must be of type int or None. A value of None will
function differently depending on the value of stream.
stream=True will read data as it arrives in whatever size the
chunks are received. If stream=False, data is returned as
a single chunk.
If decode_unicode is True, content will be decoded using the best
available encoding based on the response.
iter_lines(chunk_size=512, decode_unicode=False, delimiter=None)[source]¶
Iterates over the response data, one line at a time. When
stream=True is set on the request, this avoids reading the
content at once into memory for large responses.
Note
This method is not reentrant safe.
json(**kwargs)[source]¶
Returns the json-encoded content of a response, if any.
Parameters:**kwargs – Optional arguments that takes.
Raises:requests. exceptions. JSONDecodeError – If the response body does not
contain valid json.
links¶
Returns the parsed header links of the response, if any.
next¶
Returns a PreparedRequest for the next request in a redirect chain, if there is one.
ok¶
Returns True if status_code is less than 400, False if not.
This attribute checks if the status code of the response is between
400 and 600 to see if there was a client error or a server error. If
the status code is between 200 and 400, this will return True. This
is not a check to see if the response code is 200 OK.
raise_for_status()[source]¶
Raises HTTPError, if one occurred.
raw = None¶
File-like object representation of response (for advanced usage).
Use of raw requires that stream=True be set on the request.
This requirement does not apply for use internally to Requests.
reason = None¶
Textual reason of responded HTTP Status, e. “Not Found” or “OK”.
request = None¶
The PreparedRequest object to which this
is a response.
status_code = None¶
Integer Code of responded HTTP Status, e. 404 or 200.
text¶
Content of the response, in unicode.
If Response. encoding is None, encoding will be guessed using
charset_normalizer or chardet.
The encoding of the response content is determined based solely on HTTP
headers, following RFC 2616 to the letter. If you can take advantage of
non-HTTP knowledge to make a better guess at the encoding, you should
set r. encoding appropriately before accessing this property.
url = None¶
Final URL location of Response.
Lower-Lower-Level Classes¶
class eparedRequest[source]¶
The fully mutable PreparedRequest object,
containing the exact bytes that will be sent to the server.
Instances are generated from a Request object, and
should not be instantiated manually; doing so may produce undesirable
effects.
>>> r = epare()
>>> r
>>> (r)
body = None¶
request body to send to the server.
dictionary of HTTP headers.
dictionary of callback hooks, for internal usage.
method = None¶
HTTP verb to send to the server.
path_url¶
Build the path URL to use.
prepare(method=None, url=None, headers=None, files=None, data=None, params=None, auth=None, cookies=None, hooks=None, json=None)[source]¶
Prepares the entire request with the given parameters.
prepare_auth(auth, url=”)[source]¶
Prepares the given HTTP auth data.
prepare_body(data, files, json=None)[source]¶
Prepares the given HTTP body data.
prepare_content_length(body)[source]¶
Prepare Content-Length header based on request method and body
prepare_cookies(cookies)[source]¶
Prepares the given HTTP cookie data.
This function eventually generates a Cookie header from the
given cookies using cookielib. Due to cookielib’s design, the header
will not be regenerated if it already exists, meaning this function
can only be called once for the life of the
PreparedRequest object. Any subsequent calls
to prepare_cookies will have no actual effect, unless the “Cookie”
header is removed beforehand.
Prepares the given HTTP headers.
prepare_hooks(hooks)[source]¶
Prepares the given hooks.
prepare_method(method)[source]¶
Prepares the given HTTP method.
prepare_url(url, params)[source]¶
Prepares the given HTTP URL.
HTTP URL to send the request to.
class seAdapter[source]¶
The Base Transport Adapter
Cleans up adapter specific items.
send(request, stream=False, timeout=None, verify=True, cert=None, proxies=None)[source]¶
Sends PreparedRequest object. Returns Response object.
request – The PreparedRequest being sent.
stream – (optional) Whether to stream the request content.
to a CA bundle to use
cert – (optional) Any user-provided SSL certificate to be trusted.
proxies – (optional) The proxies dictionary to apply to the request.
class TPAdapter(pool_connections=10, pool_maxsize=10, max_retries=0, pool_block=False)[source]¶
The built-in HTTP Adapter for urllib3.
Provides a general-case interface for Requests sessions to contact HTTP and
HTTPS urls by implementing the Transport Adapter interface. This class will
usually be created by the Session class under the
covers.
pool_connections – The number of urllib3 connection pools to cache.
pool_maxsize – The maximum number of connections to save in the pool.
max_retries – The maximum number of retries each connection
should attempt. Note, this applies only to failed DNS lookups, socket
connections and connection timeouts, never to requests where data has
made it to the server. By default, Requests does not retry failed
connections. If you need granular control over the conditions under
which we retry a request, import urllib3’s Retry class and pass
that instead.
pool_block – Whether the connection pool should block for connections.
>>> a = TPAdapter(max_retries=3)
>>> (”, a)
Add any headers needed by the connection. As of v2. 0 this does
nothing by default, but is left for overriding by users that subclass
the HTTPAdapter.
This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use
when subclassing the
HTTPAdapter.
request – The PreparedRequest to add headers to.
kwargs – The keyword arguments from the call to send().
build_response(req, resp)[source]¶
Builds a Response object from a urllib3
response. This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed
for use when subclassing the
HTTPAdapter
req – The PreparedRequest used to generate the response.
resp – The urllib3 response object.
cert_verify(conn, url, verify, cert)[source]¶
Verify a SSL certificate. This method should not be called from user
code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the
conn – The urllib3 connection object associated with the cert.
url – The requested URL.
verify – Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether we verify
cert – The SSL certificate to verify.
Disposes of any internal state.
Currently, this closes the PoolManager and any active ProxyManager,
which closes any pooled connections.
get_connection(url, proxies=None)[source]¶
Returns a urllib3 connection for the given URL. This should not be
called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the
url – The URL to connect to.
proxies – (optional) A Requests-style dictionary of proxies used on this request.
Return nnectionPool
init_poolmanager(connections, maxsize, block=False, **pool_kwargs)[source]¶
Initializes a urllib3 PoolManager.
This method should not be called from user code, and is only
exposed for use when subclassing the
connections – The number of urllib3 connection pools to cache.
maxsize – The maximum number of connections to save in the pool.
block – Block when no free connections are available.
pool_kwargs – Extra keyword arguments used to initialize the Pool Manager.
Returns a dictionary of the headers to add to any request sent
through a proxy. This works with urllib3 magic to ensure that they are
correctly sent to the proxy, rather than in a tunnelled request if
CONNECT is being used.
Parameters:proxy – The url of the proxy being used for this request.
proxy_manager_for(proxy, **proxy_kwargs)[source]¶
Return urllib3 ProxyManager for the given proxy.
proxy – The proxy to return a urllib3 ProxyManager for.
proxy_kwargs – Extra keyword arguments used to configure the Proxy Manager.
Returns:ProxyManager
Return oxyManager
request_url(request, proxies)[source]¶
Obtain the url to use when making the final request.
If the message is being sent through a HTTP proxy, the full URL has to
be used. Otherwise, we should only use the path portion of the URL.
proxies – A dictionary of schemes or schemes and hosts to proxy URLs.
Return type:str
timeout (float or tuple or urllib3 Timeout object) – (optional) How long to wait for the server to send
verify – (optional) Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether
we verify the server’s TLS certificate, or a string, in which case it
must be a path to a CA bundle to use
Authentication¶
class [source]¶
Base class that all auth implementations derive from
class (username, password)[source]¶
Attaches HTTP Basic Authentication to the given Request object.
Attaches HTTP Proxy Authentication to a given Request object.
Attaches HTTP Digest Authentication to the given Request object.
Encodings¶
(content)[source]¶
Returns encodings from given content string.
Parameters:content – bytestring to extract encodings from.
Returns encodings from given HTTP Header Dict.
Parameters:headers – dictionary to extract encoding from.
(r)[source]¶
Returns the requested content back in unicode.
Parameters:r – Response object to get unicode content from.
Tried:
charset from content-type
fall back and replace all unicode characters
Cookies¶
(cj)[source]¶
Returns a key/value dictionary from a CookieJar.
Parameters:cj – CookieJar object to extract cookies from.
(cj, cookie_dict)[source]¶
Returns a CookieJar from a key/value dictionary.
cj – CookieJar to insert cookies into.
cookie_dict – Dict of key/values to insert into CookieJar.
Return type:CookieJar
okiejar_from_dict(cookie_dict, cookiejar=None, overwrite=True)[source]¶
cookiejar – (optional) A cookiejar to add the cookies to.
overwrite – (optional) If False, will not replace cookies
already in the jar with new ones.
class questsCookieJar(policy=None)[source]¶
Compatibility class; is a okieJar, but exposes a dict
interface.
This is the CookieJar we create by default for requests and sessions that
don’t specify one, since some clients may expect okies and
okies to support dict operations.
Requests does not use the dict interface internally; it’s just for
compatibility with external client code. All requests code should work
out of the box with externally provided instances of CookieJar, e. g.
LWPCookieJar and FileCookieJar.
Unlike a regular CookieJar, this class is pickleable.
Warning
dictionary operations that are normally O(1) may be O(n).
Add correct Cookie: header to request (quest object).
The Cookie2 header is also added unless policy. hide_cookie2 is true.
clear(domain=None, path=None, name=None)¶
Clear some cookies.
Invoking this method without arguments will clear all cookies. If
given a single argument, only cookies belonging to that domain will be
removed. If given two arguments, cookies belonging to the specified
path within that domain are removed. If given three arguments, then
the cookie with the specified name, path and domain is removed.
Raises KeyError if no matching cookie exists.
clear_expired_cookies()¶
Discard all expired cookies.
You probably don’t need to call this method: expired cookies are never
sent back to the server (provided you’re using DefaultCookiePolicy),
this method is called by CookieJar itself every so often, and the
() method won’t save expired cookies anyway (unless you ask
otherwise by passing a true ignore_expires argument).
clear_session_cookies()¶
Discard all session cookies.
Note that the () method won’t save session cookies anyway, unless
you ask otherwise by passing a true ignore_discard argument.
copy()[source]¶
Return a copy of this RequestsCookieJar.
Extract cookies from response, where allowable given the request.
get(name, default=None, domain=None, path=None)[source]¶
Dict-like get() that also supports optional domain and path args in
order to resolve naming collisions from using one cookie jar over
multiple domains.
operation is O(n), not O(1).
get_dict(domain=None, path=None)[source]¶
Takes as an argument an optional domain and path and returns a plain
old Python dict of name-value pairs of cookies that meet the
requirements.
get_policy()[source]¶
Return the CookiePolicy instance used.
items()[source]¶
Dict-like items() that returns a list of name-value tuples from the
jar. Allows client-code to call dict(RequestsCookieJar) and get a
vanilla python dict of key value pairs.
See also
keys() and values().
iteritems()[source]¶
Dict-like iteritems() that returns an iterator of name-value tuples
from the jar.
iterkeys() and itervalues().
iterkeys()[source]¶
Dict-like iterkeys() that returns an iterator of names of cookies
itervalues() and iteritems().
itervalues()[source]¶
Dict-like itervalues() that returns an iterator of values of cookies
iterkeys() and iteritems().
keys()[source]¶
Dict-like keys() that returns a list of names of cookies from the
jar.
values() and items().
list_domains()[source]¶
Utility method to list all the domains in the jar.
list_paths()[source]¶
Utility method to list all the paths in the jar.
make_cookies(response, request)¶
Return sequence of Cookie objects extracted from response object.
multiple_domains()[source]¶
Returns True if there are multiple domains in the jar.
Returns False otherwise.
Return type:bool
pop(k[, d]) → v, remove specified key and return the corresponding value. ¶
If key is not found, d is returned if given, otherwise KeyError is raised.
popitem() → (k, v), remove and return some (key, value) pair¶
as a 2-tuple; but raise KeyError if D is empty.
set(name, value, **kwargs)[source]¶
Dict-like set() that also supports optional domain and path args in
set_cookie(cookie, *args, **kwargs)[source]¶
Set a cookie, without checking whether or not it should be set.
set_cookie_if_ok(cookie, request)¶
Set a cookie if policy says it’s OK to do so.
setdefault(k[, d]) → (k, d), also set D[k]=d if k not in D¶
update(other)[source]¶
Updates this jar with cookies from another CookieJar or dict-like
values()[source]¶
Dict-like values() that returns a list of values of cookies from the
keys() and items().
class okieConflictError[source]¶
There are two cookies that meet the criteria specified in the cookie jar.
Use and and include domain and path args in order to be more specific.
Status Code Lookup¶

The codes object defines a mapping from common names for HTTP statuses
to their numerical codes, accessible either as attributes or as dictionary
items.
Example:
>>> [‘temporary_redirect’]
307
>>>
418
>>> [‘\o/’]
200
Some codes have multiple names, and both upper- and lower-case versions of
the names are allowed. For example,,, and
all correspond to the HTTP status code 200.
100: continue
101: switching_protocols
102: processing
103: checkpoint
122: uri_too_long, request_uri_too_long
200: ok, okay, all_ok, all_okay, all_good, \o/, ✓
201: created
202: accepted
203: non_authoritative_info, non_authoritative_information
204: no_content
205: reset_content, reset
206: partial_content, partial
207: multi_status, multiple_status, multi_stati, multiple_stati
208: already_reported
226: im_used
300: multiple_choices
301: moved_permanently, moved, \o-
302: found
303: see_other, other
304: not_modified
305: use_proxy
306: switch_proxy
307: temporary_redirect, temporary_moved, temporary
308: permanent_redirect, resume_incomplete, resume
400: bad_request, bad
401: unauthorized
402: payment_required, payment
403: forbidden
404: not_found, -o-
405: method_not_allowed, not_allowed
406: not_acceptable
407: proxy_authentication_required, proxy_auth, proxy_authentication
408: request_timeout, timeout
409: conflict
410: gone
411: length_required
412: precondition_failed, precondition
413: request_entity_too_large
414: request_uri_too_large
415: unsupported_media_type, unsupported_media, media_type
416: requested_range_not_satisfiable, requested_range, range_not_satisfiable
417: expectation_failed
418: im_a_teapot, teapot, i_am_a_teapot
421: misdirected_request
422: unprocessable_entity, unprocessable
423: locked
424: failed_dependency, dependency
425: unordered_collection, unordered
426: upgrade_required, upgrade
428: precondition_required, precondition
429: too_many_requests, too_many
431: header_fields_too_large, fields_too_large
444: no_response, none
449: retry_with, retry
450: blocked_by_windows_parental_controls, parental_controls
451: unavailable_for_legal_reasons, legal_reasons
499: client_closed_request
500: internal_server_error, server_error, /o\, ✗
501: not_implemented
502: bad_gateway
503: service_unavailable, unavailable
504: gateway_timeout
505: _version_not_supported, _version
506: variant_also_negotiates
507: insufficient_storage
509: bandwidth_limit_exceeded, bandwidth
510: not_extended
511: network_authentication_required, network_auth, network_authentication
Migrating to 1. x¶
This section details the main differences between 0. x and 1. x and is meant
to ease the pain of upgrading.
API Changes¶
is now a callable and not a property of a response.
import requests
r = (”)
() # This *call* raises an exception if JSON decoding fails
The Session API has changed. Sessions objects no longer take parameters.
Session is also now capitalized, but it can still be
instantiated with a lowercase session for backwards compatibility.
s = ssion() # formerly, session took parameters
= auth
s. (headers)
All request hooks have been removed except ‘response’.
Authentication helpers have been broken out into separate modules. See
requests-oauthlib and requests-kerberos.
The parameter for streaming requests was changed from prefetch to
stream and the logic was inverted. In addition, stream is now
required for raw response reading.
# in 0. x, passing prefetch=False would accomplish the same thing
r = (”, stream=True)
for chunk in er_content(8192):…
The config parameter to the requests method has been removed. Some of
these options are now configured on a Session such as keep-alive and
maximum number of redirects. The verbosity option should be handled by
configuring logging.
import logging
# Enabling debugging at level (requests->urllib3->)
# you will see the REQUEST, including HEADERS and DATA, and RESPONSE with HEADERS but without DATA.
# the only thing missing will be the which is not logged.
try: # for Python 3
from import HTTPConnection
except ImportError:
from lib import HTTPConnection
buglevel = 1
sicConfig() # you need to initialize logging, otherwise you will not see anything from requests
tLogger(). setLevel()
requests_log = tLogger(“urllib3″)
tLevel()
opagate = True
(”)
Licensing¶
One key difference that has nothing to do with the API is a change in the
license from the ISC license to the Apache 2. 0 license. The Apache 2. 0
license ensures that contributions to Requests are also covered by the Apache
2. 0 license.
Migrating to 2. x¶
Compared with the 1. 0 release, there were relatively few backwards
incompatible changes, but there are still a few issues to be aware of with
this major release.
For more details on the changes in this release including new APIs, links
to the relevant GitHub issues and some of the bug fixes, read Cory’s blog
on the subject.
There were a couple changes to how Requests handles exceptions.
RequestException is now a subclass of IOError rather t
Response Methods - Python requests - GeeksforGeeks

Response Methods – Python requests – GeeksforGeeks

When one makes a request to a URI, it returns a response. This Response object in terms of python is returned by (), method being – get, post, put, etc. Response is a powerful object with lots of functions and attributes that assist in normalizing data or creating ideal portions of code. For example, atus_code returns the status code from the headers itself, and one can check if the request was processed successfully or not. Response object can be used to imply lots of features, methods, and functionalities. Example: Save this file as, and run using below command Python Status code 200 indicates that request was made successfully. Response MethodsMethodDescriptionresponse. headersresponse. headers returns a dictionary of response sponse. encodingresponse. encoding returns the encoding used to decode sponse. elapsedresponse. elapsed returns a timedelta object with the time elapsed from sending the request to the arrival of the ()() closes the connection to the ntent returns the content of the response, in okies returns a CookieJar object with the cookies sent back from the sponse. historyresponse. history returns a list of response objects holding the history of request (url)_permanent_redirect returns True if the response is the permanent redirected url, otherwise _redirect returns True if the response was redirected, otherwise er_content()er_content() iterates over the ()() returns a JSON object of the result (if the result was written in JSON format, if not it raises an error) returns the URL of the returns the content of the response, in atus_code returns a number that indicates the status (200 is OK, 404 is Not Found)quest returns the request object that requested this returns a text corresponding to the status sponse. raise_for_status()response. raise_for_status() returns an HTTPError object if an error has occurred during the returns True if status_code is less than 200, otherwise returns the header mmonly Used Response MethodsSome methods are most commonly used with response, such as (), atus_code,, etc. Requests is mostly used for making request to APIs(Application Programming Interface). Some of commonly used response methods are discussed here – ()() returns a JSON object of the result (if the result was written in JSON format, if not it raises an error). How to use () using Python requests? To illustrate use of (), let’s ping To run this script, you need to have Python and requests installed on your PC. Example code –Example Implementation –Save above file as and run using Python Output –Check the json content at the terminal output. This basically returns a Python dictionary. returns True if status_code is less than 200, otherwise False. How to use using Python requests? To illustrate use of, let’s ping To run this script, you need to have Python and requests installed on your PC. Example code –Example Implementation –Save above file as and run using Python Output –Check that True which matches the condition of request being less than or equal to 200. atus_code returns a number that indicates the status (200 is OK, 404 is Not Found). How to use atus_code using Python requests? To illustrate use of atus_code, let’s ping To run this script, you need to have Python and requests installed on your PC. Example code –Example Implementation –Save above file as and run using Python Output –Check that and 200 in the output which refer to HttpResponse and Status code respectively. response. headers returns a dictionary of response headers. To check more about headers, visit – Different HTTP Headers How to use response. headers using Python requests? To illustrate use of response. headers, let’s ping API of Github. To run this script, you need to have Python and requests installed on your PC. Example code –Example Implementation –Save above file as and run using Python Output – ntent returns the content of the response, in bytes. Basically, it refers to Binary Response content. How to use ntent using Python requests? To illustrate use of ntent, let’s ping API of Github. To run this script, you need to have Python and requests installed on your PC. Example code –Example Implementation –Save above file as and run using Python Output – Check that b’ at the start of output, it means the reference to a bytes object. Attention geek! Strengthen your foundations with the Python Programming Foundation Course and learn the basics. To begin with, your interview preparations Enhance your Data Structures concepts with the Python DS Course. And to begin with your Machine Learning Journey, join the Machine Learning – Basic Level Course

Frequently Asked Questions about python requests response

How do you get a response from a python request?

r = requests.get(url = URL, params = PARAMS) Here we create a response object ‘r’ which will store the request-response. We use requests. … data = r.json() Now, in order to retrieve the data from the response object, we need to convert the raw response content into a JSON type data structure.4 days ago

What does Python requests get return?

When one makes a request to a URI, it returns a response. This Response object in terms of python is returned by requests. … Response is a powerful object with lots of functions and attributes that assist in normalizing data or creating ideal portions of code. For example, response.Jul 23, 2021

What is response content in Python?

Python requests are generally used to fetch the content from a particular resource URI. Whenever we make a request to a specified URI through Python, it returns a response object. Now, this response object would be used to access certain features such as content, headers, etc.Jul 26, 2021

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