What is a Proxy Server? How It Works & How to Use It | Fortinet
What Is a Proxy Server?
A proxy server provides a gateway between users and the internet. It is a server, referred to as an “intermediary” because it goes between end-users and the web pages they visit online.
When a computer connects to the internet, it uses an IP address. This is similar to your home’s street address, telling incoming data where to go and marking outgoing data with a return address for other devices to authenticate. A proxy server is essentially a computer on the internet that has an IP address of its own.
Proxy Servers and Network Security
Proxies provide a valuable layer of security for your computer. They can be set up as web filters or firewalls, protecting your computer from internet threats like malware.
This extra security is also valuable when coupled with a secure web gateway or other email security products. This way, you can filter traffic according to its level of safety or how much traffic your network—or individual computers—can handle.
How to use a proxy? Some people use proxies for personal purposes, such as hiding their location while watching movies online, for example. For a company, however, they can be used to accomplish several key tasks such as:
Secure employees’ internet activity from people trying to snoop on them
Balance internet traffic to prevent crashes
Control the websites employees and staff access in the office
Save bandwidth by caching files or compressing incoming traffic
How a Proxy Works
Because a proxy server has its own IP address, it acts as a go-between for a computer and the internet. Your computer knows this address, and when you send a request on the internet, it is routed to the proxy, which then gets the response from the web server and forwards the data from the page to your computer’s browser, like Chrome, Safari, Firefox, or Microsoft Edge
How to Get a Proxy
There are hardware and software versions. Hardware connections sit between your network and the internet, where they get, send, and forward data from the web. Software proxies are typically hosted by a provider or reside in the cloud. You download and install an application on your computer that facilitates interaction with the proxy.
Often, a software proxy can be obtained for a monthly fee. Sometimes, they are free. The free versions tend to offer users fewer addresses and may only cover a few devices, while the paid proxies can meet the demands of a business with many devices.
How Is the Server Set Up?
To get started with a proxy server, you have to configure it in your computer, device, or network. Each operating system has its own setup procedures, so check the steps required for your computer or network.
In most cases, however, setup means using an automatic configuration script. If you want to do it manually, there will be options to enter the IP address and the appropriate port.
How Does the Proxy Protect Computer Privacy and Data?
A proxy server performs the function of a firewall and filter. The end-user or a network administrator can choose a proxy designed to protect data and privacy. This examines the data going in and out of your computer or network. It then applies rules to prevent you from having to expose your digital address to the world. Only the proxy’s IP address is seen by hackers or other bad actors. Without your personal IP address, people on the internet do not have direct access to your personal data, schedules, apps, or files.
With it in place, web requests go to the proxy, which then reaches out and gets what you want from the internet. If the server has encryption capabilities, passwords and other personal data get an extra tier of protection.
Benefits of a Proxy Server
Proxies come with several benefits that can give your business an advantage:
Enhanced security: Can act like a firewall between your systems and the internet. Without them, hackers have easy access to your IP address, which they can use to infiltrate your computer or network.
Private browsing, watching, listening, and shopping: Use different proxies to help you avoid getting inundated with unwanted ads or the collection of IP-specific data.
Access to location-specific content: You can designate a proxy server with an address associated with another country. You can, in effect, make it look like you are in that country and gain full access to all the content computers in that country are allowed to interact with.
Prevent employees from browsing inappropriate or distracting sites: You can use it to block access to websites that run contrary to your organization’s principles. Also, you can block sites that typically end up distracting employees from important tasks. Some organizations block social media sites like Facebook and others to remove time-wasting temptations.
Types of Proxy Servers
While all proxy servers give users an alternate address with which to use the internet, there are several different kinds—each with its own features.
A forward proxy sits in front of clients and is used to get data to groups of users within an internal network. When a request is sent, the proxy server examines it to decide whether it should proceed with making a connection.
A forward proxy is best suited for internal networks that need a single point of entry. It provides IP address security for those in the network and allows for straightforward administrative control. However, a forward proxy may limit an organization’s ability to cater to the needs of individual end-users.
A transparent proxy can give users an experience identical to what they would have if they were using their home computer. In that way, it is “transparent. ” They can also be “forced” on users, meaning they are connected without knowing it.
Transparent proxies are well-suited for companies that want to make use of a proxy without making employees aware they are using one. It carries the advantage of providing a seamless user experience. On the other hand, transparent proxies are more susceptible to certain security threats, such as SYN-flood denial-of-service attacks.
An anonymous proxy focuses on making internet activity untraceable. It works by accessing the internet on behalf of the user while hiding their identity and computer information.
A transparent proxy is best suited for users who want to have full anonymity while accessing the internet. While transparent proxies provide some of the best identity protection possible, they are not without drawbacks. Many view the use of transparent proxies as underhanded, and users sometimes face pushback or discrimination as a result.
High Anonymity Proxy
A high anonymity proxy is an anonymous proxy that takes anonymity one step further. It works by erasing your information before the proxy attempts to connect to the target site.
The server is best suited for users for whom anonymity is an absolute necessity, such as employees who do not want their activity traced back to the organization. On the downside, some of them, particularly the free ones, are decoys set up to trap users in order to access their personal information or data.
A distorting proxy identifies itself as a proxy to a website but hides its own identity. It does this by changing its IP address to an incorrect one.
Distorting proxies are a good choice for people who want to hide their location while accessing the internet. This type of proxy can make it look like you are browsing from a specific country and give you the advantage of hiding not just your identity but that of the proxy, too. This means even if you are associated with the proxy, your identity is still secure. However, some websites automatically block distorting proxies, which could keep an end-user from accessing sites they need.
Data Center Proxy
Data center proxies are not affiliated with an internet service provider (ISP) but are provided by another corporation through a data center. The proxy server exists in a physical data center, and the user’s requests are routed through that server.
Data center proxies are a good choice for people who need quick response times and an inexpensive solution. They are therefore a good choice for people who need to gather intelligence on a person or organization very quickly. They carry the benefit of giving users the power to swiftly and inexpensively harvest data. On the other hand, they do not offer the highest level of anonymity, which may put users’ information or identity at risk.
A residential proxy gives you an IP address that belongs to a specific, physical device. All requests are then channeled through that device.
Residential proxies are well-suited for users who need to verify the ads that go on their website, so you can block cookies, suspicious or unwanted ads from competitors or bad actors. Residential proxies are more trustworthy than other proxy options. However, they often cost more money to use, so users should carefully analyze whether the benefits are worth the extra investment.
A public proxy is accessible by anyone free of charge. It works by giving users access to its IP address, hiding their identity as they visit sites.
Public proxies are best suited for users for whom cost is a major concern and security and speed are not. Although they are free and easily accessible, they are often slow because they get bogged down with free users. When you use a public proxy, you also run an increased risk of having your information accessed by others on the internet.
Shared proxies are used by more than one user at once. They give you access to an IP address that may be shared by other people, and then you can surf the internet while appearing to browse from a location of your choice.
Shared proxies are a solid option for people who do not have a lot of money to spend and do not necessarily need a fast connection. The main advantage of a shared proxy is its low cost. Because they are shared by others, you may get blamed for someone else’s bad decisions, which could get you banned from a site.
A secure sockets layer (SSL) proxy provides decryption between the client and the server. As the data is encrypted in both directions, the proxy hides its existence from both the client and the server.
These proxies are best suited for organizations that need enhanced protection against threats that the SSL protocol reveals and stops. Because Google prefers servers that use SSL, an SSL proxy, when used in connection with a website, may help its search engine ranking. On the downside, content encrypted on an SSL proxy cannot be cached, so when visiting websites multiple times, you may experience slower performance than you would otherwise.
A rotating proxy assigns a different IP address to each user that connects to it. As users connect, they are given an address that is unique from the device that connected before it.
Rotating proxies are ideal for users who need to do a lot of high-volume, continuous web scraping. They allow you to return to the same website again and again anonymously. However, you have to be careful when choosing rotating proxy services. Some of them contain public or shared proxies that could expose your data.
Unlike a forward proxy, which sits in front of clients, a reverse proxy is positioned in front of web servers and forwards requests from a browser to the web servers. It works by intercepting requests from the user at the network edge of the web server. It then sends the requests to and receives replies from the origin server.
Reverse proxies are a strong option for popular websites that need to balance the load of many incoming requests. They can help an organization reduce bandwidth load because they act like another web server managing incoming requests. The downside is reverse proxies can potentially expose the HTTP server architecture if an attacker is able to penetrate it. This means network administrators may have to beef up or reposition their firewall if they are using a reverse proxy.
Proxy Server vs. VPN
On the surface, proxy servers and virtual private networks (VPNs) may seem interchangeable because they both route requests and responses through an external server. Both also allow you to access websites that would otherwise block the country you’re physically located in. However, VPNs provide better protection against hackers because they encrypt all traffic.
Choosing VPN or Proxy
If you need to constantly access the internet to send and receive data that should be encrypted or if your company has to reveal data you must hide from hackers and corporate spies, a VPN would be a better choice.
If an organization merely needs to allow its users to browse the internet anonymously, a proxy server may do the trick. This is the better solution if you simply want to know which websites team members are using or you want to make sure they have access to sites that block users from your country.
A VPN is better suited for business use because users usually need secure data transmission in both directions. Company information and personnel data can be very valuable in the wrong hands, and a VPN provides the encryption you need to keep it protected. For personal use where a breach would only affect you, a single user, a proxy server may be an adequate choice. You can also use both technologies simultaneously, particularly if you want to limit the websites that users within your network visit while also encrypting their communications.
How Fortinet Can Help
FortiGate has the capability of both proxies and VPNs. It shields users from data breaches that often happen with high-speed traffic and uses IPsec and SSL to enhance security. FortiGate also harnesses the power of the FortiASIC hardware accelerator to enhance performance without compromising privacy. Secure your network with FortiGate VPN and proxy capabilities. Contact us to learn more.
How To Check the Proxy Server Settings on Your Computer
If you feel your Internet connection is slower than what it should be or you notice that certain websites get blocked while browsing, it could be because all your Internet traffic is going through a proxy server.
A proxy server is basically just another computer that sits between you and your ISP. It’s usually configured in corporate environments to filter web traffic going to and from employee computers. In this article, I’ll show you how you can check your proxy settings to see if your computer is indeed using a proxy server or not.
In most cases, you won’t actually be able to turn off the proxy server, since it is controlled by an administrator. However, there are times when personal computers accidentally or maliciously get set to use a proxy server.
Check Proxy Settings in Windows
In Windows, most browsers will use the proxy settings that are set on the computer. Each browser has a settings page to adjust proxy settings, but they normally just link to the settings dialog in Windows itself.
In Windows 10, there are two ways to go about changing the settings: via the Settings app or via the traditional Control Panel. I’ll mention both methods here because the Control Panel method is what you’ll need to use for Windows 7, 8 or Windows Vista.
Windows 10 Settings App
Click on Start and then click on the gear icon (Settings) at the far left. In Settings, click on Network & Internet.
In the left-hand pane, click on Proxy at the very bottom.
Here you have all the settings that are related to setting up a proxy in Windows. It’s basically split into two configurations: either Automatic or Manual proxy setup. In 99% of the cases, everything should be set to Off. If anything is turned on, your web traffic could be going through a proxy.
If you’re using an older version of Windows or if you just like the old way, you can edit the same settings via the Control Panel. Note that whichever way you choose to edit the settings, there are only one set of proxy settings in Windows.
Once you open Control Panel, just click on Internet Options.
In the Internet Options dialog, go ahead and click on the Connections tab and then click on LAN settings at the bottom.
Here you will see all the same settings as in the Settings app shown above. Anything you configure here will show up there and vice versa.
Check Proxy Settings in Mac OS X
If you are using a Mac with OS X, then the procedure is similar. You have to change the proxy settings in System Preferences as this is where most browsers check automatically.
Open System Preferences and click on Network. On the left-hand side, make sure to select the connected or active network connection. You can have different proxy settings for each type of network connection.
At the bottom, click on the Advanced button. Click on the Proxies tab and you’ll see a bunch of different protocols you can configure.
For example, if you click on Web Proxy (HTTP), you’ll be able to enter the proxy server IP address, port number, username and password.
Check Proxy Settings in Linux
In Linux, it really depends on what distribution you are running. Mostly, though, it’s going to be some version of KDE or GNOME. For example, in Linux Mint Cinnamon, which is based heavily on GNOME, you would click on the button and then click on System Settings.
Next, you would scroll down to Hardware and then click on Networking.
Finally, if you click on Network Proxy, you can choose from Automatic or Manual.
This is pretty much the same procedure for Ubuntu also, which uses Unity and GNOME. It’ll be different if you are using a different desktop environment. If you have any questions, feel free to comment. Enjoy!
Find Proxy Settings on Your Computer (for Local Testing parameters)
You can find the proxy settings applicable to your machine and use them to set up Local Testing connections.
A proxy server sits between your machine and your ISP. In most organizations, proxies are configured
by network admins to filter and/or monitor inbound and outbound web traffic from employee computers.
In this article, we’ll show you how to view proxy settings (if your computer is behind a proxy server).
You can then use the information to set up Local Testing connections with BrowserStack..
Find Proxy Settings in Windows
In most cases, browsers will use proxy settings that are set on the computer. However, each browser has a
settings page to configure proxy settings as well.
There are two ways to find proxy settings in Windows: via the Settings app (Windows 10 only) or via the
Using the Settings App (Windows 10) to find proxy settings
Click on Start, then click on the gear icon (Settings) at the far left.
In the Windows Settings menu, click on Network & Internet.
In the left pane, click on Proxy.
Here you have all the settings that are related to setting up a proxy in Windows. It’s split into
two configurations: Automatic or Manual proxy setup.
Using the configuration details to set up Local Testing connection:
If “Use setup script“ is enabled, it means that you have configured PAC proxy on your system. You
can obtain the path to PAC file from the “Script Address“ section.
Note: To set up a Local Testing connection using the PAC file, you need to ensure that the PAC file is stored on your computer and path needs to an absolute path to that file.
If “Manual proxy setup” is enabled, you can simply obtain Proxy Host and Port from the “Address“
and “Port“ section.
For Local Testing to work correctly, you need to bypass the traffic for – – from your
proxy. You can do this by adding an entry in the Proxy Exception> text field in the
“Manual proxy setup” section.
Using Control Panel (all Windows versions) to find proxy settings
In any Windows version, you can find the proxy settings via the Control Panel on your computer.
Click on Start and open the Control Panel. Then click on
In the Internet Options, go to Connections > LAN settings.
Here you have all the settings that are related to setting up a proxy in Windows. It’s basically
split into two configurations: either Automatic configuration or
Proxy Server setup.
If “Use automatic configuration script“ iis checked, it means that you have configured PAC proxy
in your system. You can obtain the path to PAC file from the “Script Address“ section.
If “Use a proxy server for your LAN” is checked, you can obtain Proxy Host and Port from the
“Address“ and “Port“ section.
proxy. You can do this by clicking the “Advanced“ button and adding an entry in the
“Do not use proxy server for addresses beginning with:“ text field.
Find Proxy Settings in OS X
On OS X, you have to view the proxy settings in System Preferences. This is where most browsers check automatically. However, each browser has a settings page to configure proxy settings as well.
Open System Preferences and click on Network.
On the left-hand side, click on an active network connection. Note that you can have different proxy settings for different network connections. Click on the Advanced button on the bottom right.
Click on the Proxies tab and you’ll see a list of proxy protocols you can configure.
If “Automatic Proxy Configuration“ is checked, it means that you have configured PAC proxy in your system. You can obtain the path to PAC file from the “Script Address“ section.
If “Web Proxy (HTTP)” or “Secure Web Proxy (HTTPS)“ is checked, you can simply obtain Proxy Host, Port, Username, and Password.
For Local Testing to work correctly, you need to bypass the traffic for – – from your proxy. You can do this by adding an entry in the ”Bypass proxy settings for these Hosts & Domains” text field.
Connection duration and disconnection
In Linux, finding your proxy settings will depend on what distribution you are running. Mostly, the procedure would be similar for the various distributions.
On Ubuntu, open on System Settings from the launcher and scroll down to Hardware. Click on Network.
Click on Network Proxy, you can choose from Automatic or Manual.
If the “Automatic“ option is selected, it means that you have configured PAC proxy in your system. You can obtain the path to PAC file from the “Configuration URL“ section.
If the “Manual“ option is selected, you can simply obtain Proxy Host and Port from the appropriate section.
For Local Testing to work correctly, you need to bypass the traffic for – – from your proxy. You can do this by using the command-line interface as follows:
To change proxy exceptions, use ‘set’ option with ‘gsettings’ command as follows.
$ gsettings set ignore-hosts “[‘localhost’, ”, ‘::1’]”
If access to the above sections is restricted on your computer, you can seek help from your IT/Network Team to gather this information.
Frequently Asked Questions about what is a computer proxy
Should I set proxy on or off?
It’s basically split into two configurations: either Automatic or Manual proxy setup. In 99% of the cases, everything should be set to Off. If anything is turned on, your web traffic could be going through a proxy.Oct 2, 2017
What are proxy settings on a computer?
A proxy server sits between your machine and your ISP. In most organizations, proxies are configured by network admins to filter and/or monitor inbound and outbound web traffic from employee computers.
Do I need a proxy server on my home computer?
Proxy servers have taken privacy and security to new levels. … With a proxy server you can securely access your favorite websites, or conduct aspects of your online business privately. But likewise, hackers can also roam undetected using a proxy server, which has led to genuine security concerns.Dec 8, 2019