How to Bypass ISP Throttling with VPN in 2021 – VPNRanks
ISP throttling is a more common issue and requires immediate attention if you want to enjoy good network speeds. Unfortunately, even though throttling has many symptoms, it usually only has one cause: an ISP meddling with your bandwidth you are experiencing any of the following, you might be a victim of throttling:Continual buffering when streaming test results show slower speed than your official allowed internet-dependent activities working significantly slower than any of those is true for you, then fret not, as you can easily bypass throttling with a post will tell you about the 5 best VPN providers to bypass bandwidth throttling, starting with ExpressVPN – our #1 recommendation to free you from the shackles of bandwidth to Bypass throttling with VPN? [Step By Step]The trick to bypass data cap and throttling is to turn yourself invisible in the eyes of your ISP and hide your internet traffic. Throttling is only possible when the ISP can see your traffic, so they can separate it into different sections to slow down a specific section of their the ISP can’t see your traffic if you are encrypted with a VPN, they won’t be able to separate and throttle it. To bypass throttling with VPN – Follow the steps below:First, get a VPN subscription. (ExpressVPN is our top recommendation for bypassing bandwidth throttling)Install the ExpressVPN app and launch your login credentials and choose a server location that is physically closest to soon as the connection with the server is established, you will be invisible to your should now be able to stream videos and perform other activities seamlessly without is bandwidth throttling? Bandwidth throttling is originated when your ISP deliberately slows down your internet connection. You may experience it if you have reached your data cap for the month or you haven’t paid for your super-fast broadband. More often than not, your ISP will slow your internet speeds regardless of your contract you imagine the traffic passing through an ISP’s server like the traffic passing along a freeway, it makes sense that the more traffic there is, the slower it reaming various video-on-demand services or using gaming in high definition utilizes a lot of bandwidth. So, to keep things moving, ISPs may throttle or slow internet service to allow users to keep at least accessing the sites they need to, even if the experience is do ISPs throttle your bandwidth? The most common reasons your ISP throttles your internet connection and limits your data transmission speeds include:Tackling network congestion: Heavy internet usage will slow down the internet speeds of other people in the same area. To neutralize this problem, ISPs may throttle the connection of anyone using high amounts of bandwidth. As a result, you may experience slower speeds for a little while, especially if you’ve been engaging in bandwidth-heavy activities, but this usually occurs only during short “rush hour” regulation: If your internet connection has a data cap and used a certain amount of bandwidth, your connection can become deprioritized. Even “unlimited” plans often have unofficial data caps. As a result, your connection could be the first to get throttled in periods of network congestion, or your speeds might stay reduced until the next cycle prioritization of certain services: ISPs are permitted to limit access to streaming services as part of their efforts to manage everyone’s connections. But you shouldn’t be denied parts of the internet for arbitrary reasons totally unrelated to do I know if I’m being throttled? You can determine if your internet is being throttled using the Internet Health Test. This tool was created by freedom advocates that measure variations in speeds through a series of individual tests. The tool will perform a speed test by connecting to various services and you see a pattern of huge variations in the measured speed when the tool connects to different servers, then this indicates internet throttling. For instance, let’s suppose you have a base internet connection speed of 100 Mbps. The tool records a speed of 95 Mbps when connected to certain servers, but this drops to 20 Mbps when connected to some other services. A speed drop of more than 25-30% is abnormal and is caused by deliberate throttling on the part of your Internet Service you want to double-check that you are indeed being throttled, you can use Netflix’s Since many ISPs specifically throttle speeds on streaming platforms like Netflix and YouTube, this tool can help you judge if you’re indeed a victim of this test registers a speed slower than your base internet connection, then this is another indication that your Internet service provider is throttling Netflix and probably other services as ’s an app for mobile users that can test if your Wi-Fi or data provider is throttling speeds on your all the tests performed through the above-mentioned tools point towards the possibility of throttling, then there’s a good chance your ISP is involved in throttling your Overview: 5 Best VPNs to bypass bandwidth throttlingExpressVPN: The Best VPN to Bypass ISP Throttling. 3000+ servers in 94 countries, built-in speed-test tool, and an average speed of 94 Mbps on a 100 Mbps internet connection. Configurable on 5 devices simultaneously with the application available for Mac, Windows, Andriod, iOS, Linux, router, and more. Starts at $6. 67/mo with a 30-day money-back guarantee. Surfshark: Budget-friendly VPN to Bypass ISP Throttling. 3200+ servers in 65 countries with an average speed of 93 Mbps on a 100 Mbps connection. Equipped with various budget-friendly subscription plans such as $2. 49/mo, which comes with a 30-day money-back guarantee. Supporting unlimited simultaneous connections with a single subscription and compatible with Mac, Windows, Android, iOS, Linux, Roku, router, and rdVPN: Secure VPN to Bypass ISP Throttling. 5200+ servers in 60 countries along with state-of-the-art security and encryption features such as Double VPN, CyberSec, and AES-256-Bit encryption. An average speed of 92 Mbps on a 100 Mbps internet connection with support for 6 simultaneous connections, at $3. 30/mo (VPN Awareness Month – 2 year plan at 72% off + 3 months FREE), and a 30-day money-back guarantee. IPVanish: The Fastest VPN to Stop Bandwith Throttling. 1900+ servers in 75+ locations, the fastest VPN to stop ISP throttling at an average speed of 96 Mbps on a 100 Mbps internet connection. Unlimited simultaneous connections for streaming, torrenting, and online gaming at the same time. The service is available for $3. 75/mo and comes with a 30-day money-back guarantee. CyberGhost: User-friendly VPN to Bypass ISP Throttling. 7000+ servers in 90 countries to bypass internet throttling. Customized modes for streaming, torrenting, gaming, and dedicated IP connections ensuring the most optimized user-friendly experience. It offers 7 simultaneous connections for just $2. 25/mo and comes with a 30-day money-back VPN to Bypass Bandwidth Throttling: An In-Depth AnalysisI have conducted an in-depth analysis of the best VPN providers that you can use to bypass internet throttling and enjoy unrestricted, unlimited, and blazing fast internet speeds. 1. Best VPN to Bypass ISP Throttling – ExpressVPN Key Features:3000+ servers in 94 countriesInternet kill switch, split-tunnelling, and AES-256-Bit military-grade encryption30-day money-back guarantee5 simultaneous connections94 Mbps on a 100 Mbps internet connectionTrustpilot Rating: 4. 7ExpressVPN is the best VPN to bypass and avoid ISP throttling. The provider has been the most popular choice among the VPN community for offering best-in-class security, privacy, unblocking, and data protection server network consists of 3000+ servers in 94 countries that enable the users to bypass any form of geo-restriction and obtain unlimited, uninterrupted, and unlimited access to various streaming services, dating, shopping, and trading VPN offers consistently fast speeds for 4K Ultra-HD video streaming and lightning-fast torrent downloading. With this VPN, users can experience considerable improvements in their internet speed if they are on a throttled network connection. Its throttling prevention capabilities make it among one of the best VPN services for streaming and Netflix. It is also known for offering best-in-class security and online privacy to its users due to its strict zero-log policy, AES-256-Bit encryption, private DNS, and trusted server network technology that completely hides the fact that you are even using a VPN supports 5 simultaneous connections on a single subscription. Also, this provider is easily configurable on various popular devices such as Mac, Windows, Android, iOS, Firestick, Roku, Chromebook, and can subscribe to ExpressVPN for $6. 67/mo, and its premium subscription comes with a 30-day money-back guarantee. To learn more about this provider, check out our ExpressVPN review. 2. Budget-friendly VPN to Bypass ISP Throttling – SurfsharkKey Features:3200+ servers in 65 countriesInternet kill switch, clean web, and multi-hopAES-256-Bit military-grade encryption30-day money-back guaranteeUnlimited simultaneous connections93 Mbps on a 100 Mbps internet connectionTrustpilot Rating: 4. 3Surfshark is the most budget-friendly VPN to defeat ISP throttling. Launched in 2018, Surfshark has quickly gained the reputation of being one of the most budget-friendly VPN due to various economical subscription plans such as $2. 49/rfshark’s server network consists of 3200+ servers in 65 countries. Its whole network is capable of constantly delivering an average speed of 93 Mbps on a 100 Mbps internet connection to not only bypass ISP throttling but also allow you to stream your favorite streaming services such as Netflix, BBC iPlayer, Hulu, Amazon Prime Video, and more in Ultra-HD video playback privacy-enhancing features such as WhiteLister, internet kill switch, and MultiHop make it easy for you to bypass throttling. Its essential features include a no-log policy, P2P-friendly servers, secure DNS, open-source code, and military-grade AES-256-bit encryption. You can use Surfshark to stop ISP throttling on Windows 10, Mac OS, iOS, Android, and more. In addition, you can use Surfshark on unlimited devices simultaneously with a single Surfshark service is available for just $2. 49/mo with a 30-day money-back guarantee, and you can also avail of a Surfshark free trial to try this service learn more about this provider, check out our Surfshark review. 3. Secure VPN for Bypassing ISP Throttling – NordVPNKey Features:5200+ servers in 60 countriesDouble VPN, onion over VPN, and obfuscated servers30-day money-back policy6 simultaneous connectionsAES-256-Bit military-grade encryption92 Mbps on a 100 Mbps internet connectionTrustpilot Rating: 4. 5NordVPN is the most secure VPN for bypassing ISP throttling. In addition, the provider offers scarce security and encryption features for the ultimate security, privacy, and data protection over the in Panama, a highly secured place, and operating in the market since 2012. The users of NordVPN can access 5200+ servers in 60 though this provider focuses more on online security and privacy, its users can easily bypass any form of online censorship with its server network. As a result, you can easily unblock popular streaming services such as Hotstar, DAZN, YouTube TV US, ITV, UKTV, and many more at 4K Ultra-HD VPN is free from IP address and DNS leaks, and PwC Switzerland has carefully audited it to ensure that all processes are secure and safe. NordVPN also offers you many important features for extra privacy, such as Onion Over VPN, DoubleVPN, and Kill Switch. With a single NordVPN subscription, you can safeguard 6 devices simultaneously. Furthermore, the service is easily compatible with major popular devices such as Mac, Windows, Android, iOS, Linux, Roku, router, and is available for just $3. 30/mo (VPN Awareness Month – 2 year plan at 72% off + 3 months FREE) and comes with a 30-day money-back guarantee. To learn more about this provider, check out our NordVPN review. 4. Fastest VPN to Stop ISP Throttling – IPVanish Key Features:1900+ servers in 75+ locationsAES-256-Bit military-grade encryptionRansomware protection, online backup, and file-sharing controlsInfinite simultaneous connections30-day money-back guarantee96 Mbps on a 100 Mbps internet connectionTrustpilot Rating: 4. 6IPVanish is the fastest VPN to bypass ISP throttling. Our testing consistently delivered an average speed of 96 Mbps on a 100 Mbps internet offers 1900+ servers in 75+ locations. These servers are fully capable of granting unlimited, uninterrupted, and blazing–fast access to various geo-restricted content such as streaming services, shopping websites, dating websites, and even banking websites though IPVanish’s headquarters are located in the United States, its strict zero-log policy and AES-256-Bit encryption guarantee complete online security, privacy, and data protection, it also offers additional features such as ransomware protection, online backup, and file-sharing can purchase IPVanish for only $3. 75/mo, and the premium service comes with a 30-day money-back reover, with a single IPVanish subscription, you can protect unlimited devices simultaneously. Meaning, you can set IPVanish on your Mac, Windows, Firestick, Android, iOS, Smart TV, Roku, Linux, PS4, and more more information on this VPN service, please read our IPVanish review. 5. User-friendly VPN to Bypass ISP Throttling – CyberGhostKey Features:7000+ servers in 90 countries7 simultaneous connectionsAES-256-Bit military-grade encryptionWiFi protection, streaming dedicated IPs45-day money-back guarantee91 Mbps on a 100 Mbps internet connectionTrustpilot Rating: 4. 8CyberGhost is a user-friendly VPN to bypass ISP throttling. In addition, the provider offers multiple custom-build VPN connection modes for streaming, torrenting, and online gaming to ensure the most optimized user-friendly berGhost offers 7000+ servers in 90 countries. The servers are categorized in multiple modes to ensure the most optimized solution to bandwidth berGhost’s headquarters is located in Romania – a country in a safe jurisdiction and without any influence from the 5-eye, 9-eyes, and 14-eyes alliance. This VPN encrypts traffic with military-grade AES-256-Bit encryption and keeps zero records of user’s internet activity, courtesy of a strict zero-log can be used to secure up to 7 devices simultaneously. In addition, the security and encryption features ensure privacy, and the wide server network allows users to bypass throttling with remarkable VPN service is available for $2. 25/mo and comes with a 45-day money-back guarantee. CyberGhost is a decent VPN solution to bandwidth throttling and best-in-class streaming, torrenting, and online gaming. To learn more about this provider, check out our CyberGhost do VPNs help with Throttling? VPN (Virtual Private Network) is a private network that allows users to connect to the internet through a secure path from their device/PC to the end node or server. It is different from a conventional network in that it adds a layer of encryption to your data packets as soon as they leave your than communicating directly with the website or server that you want to access via your ISP’s server, a VPN uses remote servers that work on your behalf to do all the communication for such, a VPN guards your secrecy by implementing AES-256-Bit encryption and keeping your real identity masked from the eyes of your ISP. However, since ISPs can scrutinize all your internet data, they are privy to your online activities. So, for instance, if they notice that you are a heavy torrent user or like to stream videos endlessly, they can throttle your bandwidth to manage their limited resource internet connection without VPN (visible to the ISP)Encrypted connection with VPN tunnel (invisible to the ISP)Since a VPN conceals your internet activities, your ISP can no longer monitor your internet traffic. Additionally, a VPN cloaks your original IP address and replaces it with the address of a VPN server, thus hiding your true location and virtually become a ghost that your ISP can’t keep track of. So, even if they wanted to throttle your internet connections, they’d be basically shooting in the your ISP doesn’t know, they can’t Unfairness of Bandwidth ThrottlingISPs often throttle connections without having any justifiable reason to do so. For instance, they may throttle your connection if you are streaming some other service instead of using their own streaming services or content libraries. Some ISPs even demand services like Netflix to pay if they want their customers to access their content without lack of regulation and enough competition among ISPs enables this unfair throttling practice. In addition, there is no authority watching over these companies to stop them from throttling and charging their customers to bypass data throttling on Android without root? Android users tend to resort to solutions like device rooting to avoid running a throttled connection. However, rooting is a risky procedure, and it can leave your device vulnerable to software bugs and malware you know exactly what you’re doing and are a tech hobbyist, I strongly recommend against rooting your phone. However, the beauty of VPN services is that they can be used to bypass throttling on Android devices without the need for stead of rooting, just follow the steps below for Android devices:Then, subscribe to a VPN (ExpressVPN recommended). Install the app on your the app and choose the desired server location. Experience the Internet with zero way, you can keep your stock Android intact and get the job done much more simply as to bypass data throttling on iPhone? iPhone users are just as likely to face issues regarding sluggish speed and connection drops due to ISP throttling. An iPhone VPN can be beneficial to get rid of these problems affecting your speed, as in ’s how to successfully bypass throttling by ISP on iPhone in simple steps:Subscribe for a VPN (ExpressVPN recommended)Download and install the VPN app on your successful installation, launch VPN, choose from overseas VPN servers and hit connecting to the VPN, perform Speedtest to confirm zero throttling. T-Mobile throttling bypass solutionMany users have reported concerns about T-Mobile throttling their connection. If you think you are one of those, here’s how to bypass T-Mobile throttling in simple steps:Here are the steps for bypassing T-Mobile throttling on Android devices:Navigate to Settings > Wireless & Network in your Android on Mobile on Access Point Names > T-Mobile down to find APN Type and Tap on it to add the word “dun” at the nally, go back and restart your phone. After booting up, you should be able to avoid T-Mobile throttling The above trick was performed on Android mobile phones and tablets. However, you can perform the same steps on iPhone and iPad by editing APN from to bypass internet throttling on Windows? To check whether your ISP throttles your connection on Windows, you can try stress testing your connection by running multiple bandwidth-intensive programs instance, run YouTube videos, Netflix, Skype, internet download manager, and any other app you can think of. Then, perform a Speedtest and check the connection, download and install one of the above-mentioned VPN services and perform a speed test once more. If you get better performance with a VPN, there’s a definite probability that you are running a throttled to bypass the straight talk data cap? Straight Talk imposes bandwidth throttling after the data consumption of users exceeds 2. 5 GB. Therefore, even if the user has purchased a 10 GB plan, the speeds drop down once 2. 5 GB of the allotted bandwidth has been a VPN effectively turns you invisible to the eyes of your ISP, you can utilize one to avoid data caps on Straight Talk. FAQsThe most effective way to bypass throttling while torrenting is to hide your online activity using a VPN. All of our recommended VPNs in this guide are fully capable of concealing your online activities from your ISP so that you can avoid bandwidth throttling and download torrents with ease. Unfortunately, with net neutrality laws now repealed, ISPs can legally throttle your internet If the VPN is not secure enough or is prone to leaks, then ISPs can throttle your connection even through a ’s how you can bypass AT&T throttling:Sign up for a VPN provider (ExpressVPN is our #1 recommendation for bypassing bandwidth throttling). Download and install the ExpressVPN application on your in to the application using ExpressVPN’s account and connect to your desired ’s it. Once the VPN connection is established, you can now bypass AT&T avoid throttling, Comcast VPN comes in handy in this situation. With this VPN provider, you can use a fake IP address and conceal your actual identity and IP address, so your Comcast ISP won’t be able to throttle your connection while you are streaming, download torrents or play online can use a VPN to deal with Verizon’s throttling antics. When you are connected to a VPN server of your choice, Verizon will be unable to trace your online activities, including streaming, online gaming, browsing, or even downloading VerdictTo summarize, if you’re experiencing bandwidth throttling from your internet service provider, such as AT&T, you can only bypass throttling with redirecting your network traffic through VPN servers, you can stop your ISP from monitoring your activities and setting bandwidth this purpose, ExpressVPN is our recommended VPN service due to lightning-fast 3000+ servers in 94 countries that offer best-in-class security, privacy, data protection, and unblocking you hurry up, you can avail of ExpressVPN’s limited time “12 months + 3 months free” subscription, which comes with a 30-day money-back guarantee.
How to Bypass T-Mobile Data throttling with a VPN
If you believe T-Mobile is slowing down your internet speed on purpose, either on desktop or mobile, then a VPN might be able to help. We’ll show you how to stop your ISP from throttling your data with a VPN.
@pabischoff December 18, 2020
Bandwidth throttling occurs when an internet service provider (ISP), such as T-Mobile, intentionally slows down a customer’s internet connection, but does not terminate it entirely. An ISP could have several justifications for bandwidth throttling:
Network congestion. Too many people in your area are using more bandwidth than what is available, forcing your ISP to place limits on individual users.
Prioritization. An ISP might prioritize some types and sources of data over others. T-Mobile could speed up connections to video streaming services with which it has partnered, in turn slowing down traffic from other sources.
Discrimination. An ISP might use bandwidth throttling to try to dissuade you from downloading or streaming certain types of data or from certain sources. Torrenting and video streaming are common examples.
Tethering. T-Mobile prioritizes on-device traffic over traffic sent to and from devices connected to a mobile hotspot.
Data cap. If you’ve exceeded your internet plan’s data cap, many ISPs will slow down your internet. Even so-called unlimited plans have soft caps that result in slower internet after you’ve passed the threshold. T-Mobile refers to mobile customers who have used more than 50GB of data in a single billing period as “heavy data users, ” who are prioritized lower than other customers.
A VPN is a tool that encrypts your internet connection and routes it through a middleman server in a remote location. T-Mobile cannot see the contents of your internet connection due to the encryption, and routing data through a server in another location masks what websites, services, and streaming sources you use.
So a VPN prevents T-Mobile from discriminating against specific sources or types of data, such as certain streaming sites or BitTorrent downloads. Getting set up is simple: sign up, install the VPN app, and pick a server location.
Our top recommendation is NordVPN. It pegs the fastest download speeds of any VPN we’ve tested, unblocks a ton of streaming sites, and never logs what you do online. Every plan comes with top-notch security, 24/7 support, and tons of features.
NordVPN CouponSAVE 72% + 3 months freeGet Deal >Discount applied automatically
If NordVPN doesn’t suit you, Surfshark and ExpressVPN are both great alternatives.
Can a VPN prevent T-Mobile bandwidth throttling?
A VPN is not guaranteed to stop bandwidth throttling, but it can work in many instances. Some VPNs, such as NordVPN, come with a money-back guarantee so you can try them out risk-free.
T-Mobile officially does not discriminate against specific types of internet traffic or sources of data. But customers in recent months have complained about T-Mobile slowing video streams and limiting their resolution, choking speeds on so-called “unlimited” plans, and throttling data to tethered devices.
Here’s what T-Mobile says on its website about throttling:
To provide the best possible experience for the most possible customers on T-Mobile-branded plans, we implement network management practices on a content-agnostic basis, such as caching less data, prioritizing data usage, and video optimization. These practices do not discriminate against offerings that might compete against those offered by T-Mobile or any T-Mobile affiliate on the basis of such competition.
If T-Mobile discriminates against specific types or sources of data, or if it restricts torrenting or streaming to alleviate network congestion, then a VPN can help.
But if you’ve exceeded your data cap, then a VPN won’t help. The total amount of data transferred will pretty much remain the same whether you’re connected to a VPN or not, and all that data is still sent through T-Mobile’s network.
How to prevent T-Mobile from bandwidth throttling
If you think T-Mobile is throttling your bandwidth, follow the steps below.
Here’s how to bypass T-Mobile bandwidth throttling:
Sign up for a VPN. We recommend NordVPN, which won’t log your activity, is super fast, and can access streaming services from all around the world.
Download and install the VPN app for your device.
Run the VPN app.
Select a location. Nearby servers tend to be faster.
Hit the Connect button.
After a few seconds, the VPN connection will be completed. You should get a notification saying as much. You can now bypass bandwidth throttling as discussed above.
How do I know if T-Mobile is data throttling?
To find out if you’re being throttled, you first need to know what speeds T-Mobile has promised you. Look through your T-Mobile plan’s details for data caps, bandwidth limits, and other fine print.
Once you know how much speed you’re supposed to get, test it out. is our preferred testing site.
If your download speed is significantly less than what’s in your plan, then you might be being throttled. Note, however, that this could also indicate an issue with your or T-Mobile’s equipment. Check to see if speeds dip at certain times of day or during certain online activities.
If your speed test results are notably higher than what you get when torrenting, downloading, or streaming, then those specific activities could be throttled.
Try connecting to a VPN and testing your speed again. If your speeds are much higher while connected to the VPN, then it’s very likely that your ISP is bandwidth throttling.
Is it legal for T-Mobile to throttle my bandwidth?
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) under the Trump administration repealed the Open Internet Order, an Obama-era rule that stipulated ISPs treat all internet traffic the same. ISPs are now allowed to discriminate by application, device, content, or service.
But even though it is legal, T-Mobile says it does not discriminate against particular devices, content, or sources of traffic, and that it adheres to basic Open Internet principles.
How to disable Wi-Fi throttling on Android 10 – NetSpot
Starting Android 9, bandwidth throttling is greatly limiting the apps that measure WiFi signal and need more than four scans every 2 minutes.
There is a workaround in Android 10 however! Follow the steps below to disable throttling for foreground apps and get the most from your NetSpot on Android. Not allowing Android to throttle NetSpot while scanning your network will help improving WiFi scan accuracy.
First, you’ll need to activate developer options:
Go to Settings > About phone > Software information > Build number (or just Settings > About phone > Build number for some phones).
After you activated developer settings, you can toggle the throttling off for local testing purposes:
Go to Settings > Developer options > find “Wi-Fi scan throttling” > disable it (or Settings > System > Advanced > Developer options).
With WiFi scan throttling disabled on your Android, you can be sure NetSpot will do its very best while surveying, scanning and analyzing your wireless network area.
There is some useful information on WiFi scan throttling here:
Have more questions? Submit a request.
Frequently Asked Questions about bypass throttling android
How can I bypass mobile data throttling?
Here’s how to bypass T-Mobile bandwidth throttling:Sign up for a VPN. We recommend NordVPN, which won’t log your activity, is super fast, and can access streaming services from all around the world.Download and install the VPN app for your device.Run the VPN app.Select a location. … Hit the Connect button.Dec 18, 2020
How do I stop my android from throttling?
Go to Settings > Developer options > find “Wi-Fi scan throttling” > disable it (or Settings > System > Advanced > Developer options).Jul 24, 2020
How do I bypass throttling without a VPN?
How To Bypass ISP Throttling Without VPNBy renegotiating the internet package or plan with the internet service provider. … One can create a proxy server of his or her own. … The customer can just simply upgrade the internet package if he or she wants to avoid ISP throttling.Jun 1, 2020